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Table 2 Predictors of a clinically relevant CAD identified using logistical regression analysis

From: Duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus and systolic blood pressure as determinants of severity of coronary stenosis and adverse events in an asymptomatic diabetic population: PROCEED study

Univariate predictors Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Age (per 10 years) 1.39 (1.02–1.91) 0.04 0.99 (0.96–1.04) 0.99
Male sex 1.85 (1.08–3.16) 0.02 2.09 (1.07–4.08) 0.03
BMI (per 5 kg/m2) 0.77 (0.62–0.96) 0.02 0.95 (0.90–1.00) 0.054
Waist-to-hip ratio (per unit increase) 1.13 (0.80–1.59) 0.49  
Ethnicity   0.03   0.002
 South Asian 1   1  
 Caucasian 0.51 (0.28–0.93)   0.43 (0.21–0.89)  
 African 0.35 (0.15–0.83)   0.18 (0.06–0.51)  
Duration of T2DM (per 5 years) 1.38 (1.15–1.63) < 0.001 1.59 (1.27–1.98) < 0.001
Microvascular disease (Yes/no) 1.87 (1.10–3.16) 0.02 0.71 (0.33–1.5) 0.36
Retinopathy (Yes/no) 1.62 (0.95– 2.76) 0.08  
Hyperlipidaemia (Yes/no) 1.26 (0.66– 2.39) 0.49
Hypertension (Yes/no) 3.63 (1.81–7.29) < 0.001 0.68 (0.28–1.64) 0.39
Current smoker (Yes/no) 1.12 (0.43– 2.91) 0.80  
Statin use (Yes/no) 1.06 (0.59– 1.91) 0.84
Family history of premature ischaemic heart disease (Yes/no) 0.89 (0.46– 1.75) 0.74
SBP (per 10 mm Hg) 1.43 (1.19–1.72) < 0.001 1.37 (1.09–1.72) 0.007
HbA1c (per 10 mmol/mol) 1.10 (0.94–1.27) 0.24  
eGFR (per 10 mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.89 (0.77– 1.03) 0.12
CAC score (per log10 AU) 3.79 (2.60–5.53) < 0.001
Total cholesterol (per mmol/L) 1.21 (0.92– 1.60) 0.18
LDL-C (per mmol/L) 1.27 (0.94– 1.70) 0.12
HDL-C (per mmol/L) 0.40 (0.19–0.83) 0.01 0.95 (0.29–3.13) 0.93
Triglycerides (per mmol/L) 1.15 (0.90– 1.48) 0.27  
Total cholesterol:HDL-C ratio (per unit) 1.41 (1.12–1.77) 0.003 1.84 (1.37–2.46) < 0.001
Antidiabetic medication (Yes/no)
 Metformin 1.24 (0.54– 2.86) 0.61 9.93 (1.91–51.62) 0.006
 Sulphonylurea 0.83 (0.48–1.44) 0.51   
 Thiazolidinedione 5.7 (1.28–25.42) 0.02   
 GLP-1 agonist 1.42 (0.66–3.07) 0.37   
 DPP-4 inhibitor 1.49 (0.76–2.93) 0.25   
 Insulin 1.16 (0.69–1.96) 0.58   
ACEis/ARBs (Yes/no) 0.53 (0.30–0.91) 0.02 1.80 (0.93–3.50) 0.08
  1. CAD is defined as ≥ 1 coronary plaque causing > 50% luminal diameter stenosis
  2. Italics indicate a statistically significant association between the predictor variable and clinically relevant CAD
  3. ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; AU, Agatston Units; BMI, body mass index; CAC, coronary artery calcium; CAD, coronary artery disease; CI, confidence interval; DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; OR, odds ratio; SBP, systolic blood pressure; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus