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Fig. 2 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 2

From: The combination of a neprilysin inhibitor (sacubitril) and angiotensin-II receptor blocker (valsartan) attenuates glomerular and tubular injury in the Zucker Obese rat

Fig. 2

Sacubitril/valsartan improves filtration barrier injury in the Zucker Obese (ZO) rat. a Measures of plasma cystatin c, a surrogate marker of glomerular filtration rate. b Ratio of plasma creatinine to cystatin c, which is inversely associated with kidney injury. n = 6–9 for each treatment group. c Mesangial expansion is reduced by combination and monotherapies. Representative micrographs of PAS-stained cortical glomeruli. All colors except hot pink PAS stain were filtered. The small insets in the lower right corner of each representative micrograph show the original raw unfiltered PAS-stained images. Scale bars equal 50 μm. n = 5 for each treatment group, except for hydralazine (n = 7). Bar graphs show quantitative analysis of PAS stain in the glomerular mesangium. Symbols: *p < 0.05 versus ZLC; p < 0.05 versus ZOC; Δp < 0.05 versus ZOSV; §p < 0.05 versus ZOH; αindicates p < 0.05 vs ZLC by two tailed T-test; βp < 0.05 versus ZOC by two-tailed T-test

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