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Table 3 Echocardiographic predictors of incident DM (n = 55) using Cox regression

From: Left ventricular concentric geometry predicts incident diabetes mellitus independent of established risk factors in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

Unadjusted Hazard ratio p-value
LV concentric geometry HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.71–5.00 < 0.001
LVIDD/height (per 1 cm/m increase) HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.0.29–1.87 0.51
LVMI (per 5 g/m2 increase) HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.13 0.004
IVSD (per 1 mm increase) HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.18–1.46 < 0.001
PWT (per 1 mm increase) HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.20–1.52 < 0.001
AWT (per 1 mm increase) HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.30–1.71 < 0.001
RWT (per 0.1 increase) HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.38–2.12 < 0.001
LAVI (per 1 mL/m2 increase) HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99–1.06 0.20
E (per 10 cm/s decrease) HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95–1.34 0.17
A (per 10 cm/s increase) HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.33–1.70 < 0.001
E/A ratio (per 0.1 decrease) HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.15–1.40 < 0.001
E/e′ ratio (per 1 increase) HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05–1.13 < 0.001
DT (per 10 ms increase) HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.14 0.009
s′ (per 1 cm/s increase) HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.64–1.02 0.07
e′ (per 1 cm/s increase) HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67–0.85 < 0.001
a′ (per 1 cm/s increase) HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05–1.40 0.008
  1. Model 1 is adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, BMI, blood glucose, HbA1C levels, pro-BNP, prevalent ischemic heart disease and prevalent heart failure. Model 2 is adjusted for the same variables as Model 1 with the addition of A. In the multivariable models, only parameters reaching statistical significance are shown
  2. LVIDD/height left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole indexed to height, LVMI left ventricular mass index, IVSD interventricular septum diameter, PWT posterior wall thickness, AWT average wall thickness, RWT relative wall thickness, LAVI left atrial volume index, DT deceleration time
Model 1 Hazard ratio p-value
A (per 10 cm/s increase) HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02–1.46 0.028
LV Concentric Geometry HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.09–3.38 0.023
RWT (per 0.1 increase) HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09–1.87 0.009
  1. Model 1 is adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, BMI, blood glucose, HbA1C levels, pro-BNP, prevalent ischemic heart disease and prevalent heart failure. Model 2 is adjusted for the same variables as Model 1 with the addition of A. In the multivariable models, only parameters reaching statistical significance are shown
  2. LVIDD/height left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole indexed to height, LVMI left ventricular mass index, IVSD interventricular septum diameter, PWT posterior wall thickness, AWT average wall thickness, RWT relative wall thickness, LAVI left atrial volume index, DT deceleration time
Model 2 Hazard ratio p-value
LV Concentric Geometry HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.11–3.57 0.021
RWT (per 0.1 increase) HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06–1.86 0.017
  1. Model 1 is adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, BMI, blood glucose, HbA1C levels, pro-BNP, prevalent ischemic heart disease and prevalent heart failure. Model 2 is adjusted for the same variables as Model 1 with the addition of A. In the multivariable models, only parameters reaching statistical significance are shown
  2. LVIDD/height left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole indexed to height, LVMI left ventricular mass index, IVSD interventricular septum diameter, PWT posterior wall thickness, AWT average wall thickness, RWT relative wall thickness, LAVI left atrial volume index, DT deceleration time