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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of participants stratified according to LV concentric geometry

From: Left ventricular concentric geometry predicts incident diabetes mellitus independent of established risk factors in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

Demographics No LV concentric geometry LV concentric geometry p-value
N 1349 (78.9%) 361 (21.1%)  
Age (years) 54.6 (16.2) 64.8 (14.0) < 0.001
Male 541 (40.1%) 135 (37.4%)  
Clinical characteristics
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 131.4 (22.1) 143.2 (21.2) < 0.001
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 77.0 (11.5) 80.7 (13.6) < 0.001
 Hypertension 450 (33.4%) 215 (59.6%) < 0.001
 MAP (mmHg) 95.1 (13.6) 101.6 (14.0) < 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.0 (3.7) 25.7 (3.9) 0.001
 Heart rate (BPM) 66 (11) 68 (12) 0.006
 Smoking 406 (30.1%) 119 (33.0%) 0.29
 Ischemic heart disease 59 (4.4%) 23 (6.4%) 0.11
 Heart failure 11 (0.8%) 5 (1.4%) 0.32
 Glucose (mmol/L) 5.4 (1.0) 5.7 (1.1) < 0.001
 HBA1c (%) 5.7 (0.5) 5.8 (0.5) 0.23
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.5 (0.8) 1.6 (0.9) 0.021
 eGFR (mL/min) 77 (16) 74 (16) < 0.001
 Pro-BNP (pmol/L) 15 (7–28) 20 (9–37) < 0.001
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.5 (1.1) 5.8 (1.3) < 0.001
 Blood pressure lowering medication 139 (10.3%) 83 (23.0%) < 0.001
 Lipid lowering medication 151 (11.2%) 73 (20.2%) < 0.001
Echocardiography
 LVEF (%) 59.7 (2.0) 59.8 (1.0) 0.24
 LVIDd/height (cm/m) 2.9 (0.3) 2.6 (0.3) < 0.001
 LVMI (g/m2) 83.7 (20.8) 93.0 (25.0) < 0.001
 PWT (cm) 0.8 (0.1) 1.1 (0.1) < 0.001
 AWT (cm) 0.9 (0.1) 1.1 (0.2) < 0.001
 RWT (cm) 0.34 (0.05) 0.49 (0.07) < 0.001
 IVSD (cm) 0.9 (0.2) 1.1 (0.2) < 0.001
LV hypertrophy categories N/A
 Normal geometry 1178 (87.6%) 0  
 Concentric remodeling 0 270 (74.8%)  
 Eccentric hypertrohpy 166 (12.4%) 0  
 Concentric hypertrohpy 0 91 (25.2%)  
 LAVI (mL/m2) 19.4 (6.7) 19.6 (7.6) 0.56
 E (m/s) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) < 0.001
 A (m/s) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) < 0.001
 E/A 1.2 (0.5) 1.0 (0.4) < 0.001
 E/e′ 10.4 (4.2) 12.8 (5.9) < 0.001
 DT (ms) 163 (36) 174 (49) < 0.001
 s′ (cm/s) 6.0 (1.3) 5.7 (1.3) < 0.001
 e′ (cm/s) 7.8 (2.7) 6.2 (2.3) < 0.001
 a′ (cm/s) 6.2 (1.9) 6.9 (1.8) < 0.001
  1. BP blood pressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, BMI body mass index, BPM beats per minute, AMI acute myocardial infarction, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, GLS global longitudinal strain, LVIDd left ventricular inner diameter at end diastole, LVMI left ventricular mass index, PWT posterior wall thickness, AWT average wall thickness, RWT relative wall thickness, IVSD interventricular septum diameter, LAVI left atrial volume index, DT deceleration time