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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants stratified according to DM at follow-up

From: Left ventricular concentric geometry predicts incident diabetes mellitus independent of established risk factors in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

Demographics All participants No DM DM p-value
N 1710 1655 (96.8%) 55 (3.2%)  
Age (years) 56.8 (16.3) 56.4 (16.4) 65.5 (10.9) < 0.001
Male 676 (39.5%) 648 (39.2%) 28 (50.9%) 0.08
Clinical characteristics
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 133.9 (22.4) 133.4 (22.4) 148.2 (18.6) < 0.001
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 77.8 (12.0) 77.6 (12.1) 82.6 (10.3) 0.002
 Hypertension 665 (39.0%) 625 (37.9%) 40 (72.7%) < 0.001
 MAP (mmHg) 96.5 (13.9) 96.2 (13.9) 104.5 (11.2) < 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.1 (3.7) 25.0 (3.7) 28.6 (4.4) < 0.001
 Heart rate (BPM) 67 (11) 67 (11) 71 (11) 0.008
 Smoking 525 (30.7%) 504 (30.5%) 21 (38.2%) 0.22
 Ischemic heart disease 82 (4.8%) 74 (4.5%) 8 (14.5%) < 0.001
 Heart failure 16 (0.9%) 16 (1.0%) 0 (0%) 0.46
 Glucose (mmol/L) 5.5 (1.0) 5.5 (1.0) 6.2 (1.5) < 0.001
 HBA1c (%) 5.8 (0.5) 5.7 (0.5) 6.0 (0.5) < 0.001
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.5 (0.8) 1.5 (0.8) 2.0 (1.2) < 0.001
 eGFR (mL/min) 76 (16) 76 (16) 76 (17) 0.94
 Pro-BNP (pmol/L) 16, (8-30) 16 (7-30) 17 (11-30) 0.47
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.5 (1.2) 5.5 (1.2) 5.7 (1.0) 0.30
 Blood pressure lowering medication 222 (13.0%) 202 (12.2%) 20 (36.4%) < 0.001
 Lipid lowering medication 224 (13.1%) 207 (12.5%) 17 (30.9%) < 0.001
Echocardiography
 LVEF (%) 59.7 (1.9) 59.7 (1.9) 59.9 (1.0) 0.61
 LVIDd/height (cm/m) 2.8 (0.3) 2.8 (0.3) 2.8 (0.3) 0.52
 LVMI (g/m2) 85.7 (22.1) 85.4 (21.9) 93.0 (24.4) 0.013
 PWT (cm) 0.9 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2) 1.0 (0.2) < 0.001
 AWT (cm) 0.9 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2) 1.0 (0.2) < 0.001
 RWT (cm) 0.38 (0.08) 0.37 (0.08) 0.42 (0.11) < 0.001
 IVSD (cm) 1.0 (0.2) 1.0 (0.2) 1.1 (0.2) < 0.001
 LV concentric geometry 361 (21.1%) 338 (20.4%) 23 (41.8%) < 0.001
LV hypertrophy categories < 0.001
 Normal geometry 1178 (69.1%) 1153 (69.9%) 25 (45.5%)  
 Concentric remodeling 270 (15.8%) 253 (15.3%) 17 (30.9%)  
 Eccentric hypertrohpy 166 (9.7%) 159 (9.6%) 7 (12.7%)  
 Concentric hypertrohpy 91 (5.3%) 85 (5.2%) 6 (10.9%)  
 LAVI (mL/m2) 19.4 (6.7) 19.4 (6.9) 20.2 (7.0) 0.44
 E (m/s) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) 0.18
 A (m/s) 0.7 (0.2) 0.7 (0.2) 0.8 (0.2) < 0.001
 E/A 1.2 (0.5) 1.2 (0.5) 0.9 (0.3) < 0.001
 E/e′ 10.9 (4.7) 10.8 (4.6) 13.2 (4.9) < 0.001
 DT (ms) 165 (39) 165 (39) 177 (42) 0.026
 s′ (cm/s) 5.9 (1.3) 6.0 (1.3) 5.7 (1.2) 0.16
 e′ (cm/s) 7.5 (2.7) 7.6 (2.7) 5.9 (2.2) < 0.001
 a′ (cm/s) 6.4 (1.9) 6.3 (1.9) 7.1 (1.9) 0.008
  1. BP blood pressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, BMI body mass index, BPM beats per minute, AMI acute myocardial infarction, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, GLS global longitudinal strain, LVIDd left ventricular inner diameter at end diastole, LVMI left ventricular mass index, PWT posterior wall thickness, AWT average wall thickness, RWT relative wall thickness, IVSD interventricular septum diameter, LAVI left atrial volume index, DT deceleration time