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Table 1 Effect of empagliflozin on metabolic parameters

From: How does empagliflozin improve arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Sub analysis of a clinical trial

Parameter Baseline EMPA Placebo EMPA vs baseline Placebo vs baseline Verum vs placebo
HbA1c (%) 6.69 ± 0.82 6.64 ± 0.76 6.89 ± 1.03 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 50 ± 9.0 49 ± 8.3 52 ± 11.3 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 136.5 ± 31.4 115.1 ± 19.7 139.2 ± 40.7 < 0.001 0.384 < 0.001
Body weight (kg) 87.7 ± 12.9 86.6 ± 12.6 87.6 ± 12.9 < 0.001 0.858 < 0.001
Systolic OBP (mmHg) 128 ± 13.4 122 ± 11.4 128 ± 12.7 < 0.001 0.878 < 0.001
Diastolic OBP (mmHg) 77.7 ± 7.2 75 ± 6.7 78 ± 7.9 < 0.001 0.999 0.002
Systolic 24-h ABP (mmHg) 129 ± 10.4 127 ± 9.8 129 ± 9.7 0.053 0.868 0.021
Diastolic 24-h ABP (mmHg) 79.2 ± 6.3 77.7 ± 6.9 80 ± 7.0 0.041 0.624 0.007
Central systolic BP (mmHg) 120.3 ± 12.8 113.6 ± 12.1 118.6 ± 12.9 < 0.001 0.237 < 0.001
Central PP (mmHg) 43.3 ± 11.5 39.1 ± 10.2 41.9 ± 10.7 < 0.001 0.248 0.027
FWA (mmHg) 28.9 ± 6.24 27.0 ± 5.64 28.7 ± 6.23 0.002 0.553 0.031
BWA (mmHg) 21.2 ± 6.48 18.9 ± 5.98 20.4 ± 6.01 < 0.001 0.248 0.045
Copeptin (pmol/l) 5.65 ± 4.12 6.81 ± 4.13 5.06 ± 2.83 0.001 0.211 < 0.001
Hematocrit (%) 41.5 ± 2.78 43.0 ± 2.75 42.2 ± 2.73 < 0.001 0.032 0.004
HR (bpm) 72.5 ± 9.17 71.8 ± 9.18 72.2 ± 10.3 0.439 0.787 0.577
Cholesterol (mg/dl) 178.1 ± 35.3 182.5 ± 39.0 180.3 ± 36.9 0.077 0.325 0.413
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 88.0 ± 24.2 92.9 ± 27.4 91.2 ± 24.3 0.016 0.061 0.425
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 52.2 ± 11.3 54.5 ± 12.9 53.4 ± 11.8 < 0.002 0.086 0.219
Uric acid (mg/dl) 6.05 ± 1.26 4.85 ± 1.27 5.89 ± 1.23 < 0.001 0.061 < 0.001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 92.7 ± 6.98 91.2 ± 7.42 92.5 ± 7.01 < 0.001 0.535 < 0.001
hsCRP (mg/l) 2.10 ± 1.72 1.99 ± 1.19 1.88 ± 1.32 0.583 0.283 0.458
  1. Data are given as mean ± SD
  2. OBP office blood pressure, 24-h ABP 24 h ambulatory blood pressure, PP pulse pressure, FWA forward wave amplitude, BWA backward wave amplitude, HR heart rate, LDL low density lipid, HDL high density lipid, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate (calculated from serum creatinine using CKD-EPI formula), hsCRP high sensitive C-reactive protein