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Table 1 Summary of clinical characteristics between patients with normal versus abnormal endothelial-independent and endothelial-dependent microvascular function

From: Coronary microvascular dysfunction is associated with poor glycemic control amongst female diabetics with chest pain and non-obstructive coronary artery disease

  CFRAdn Ratio > 2.5
N = 80 (62%)
CFRAdn Ratio ≤ 2.5
N = 49 (38%)
p value %ΔCBFAch > 50%
N = 78 (60.5%)
%ΔCBFAch ≤ 50%
N = 51 (39.5%)
p value
Age, years (SD) 52.8 (10.1) 55.8 (10.4) 0.112 50.4 (10.9) 56.2 (9.3) 0.002
Female, n (%) 41 (51.3%) 36 (73.5%) 0.011 35 (68.6%) 42 (53.9%) 0.092
BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 33.4 (7.6) 33.9 (7.5) 0.726 33.0 (8.4) 34.0 (7.0) 0.497
Hypertension, n (%) 56 (70%) 30 (61.2) 0.307 32 (62.8) 54 (69.2) 0.446
Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 60 (75%) 37 (75.5%) 0.948 36 (70.6%) 61 (78.2%) 0.330
History of MI, n (%) 8 (10.0%) 8 (16.3%) 0.579 7 (13.7%) 9 (11.5%) 0.919
History of vascular disease, n (%) 10 (12.5%) 4 (8.2) 0.666 7 (13.7) 7 (9.0%) 0.597
Smoking status, n (%)
Never smoked 31 (38.8%) 25 (51.0%) 0.439 17 (33.3%) 39 (50.0%) 0.152
Former smoker 39 (48.8%) 20 (40.8%)   29 (56.9%) 30 (38.5%)  
Current smoker 9 (11.3%) 4 (8.2%)   5 (9.8%) 8 (10.3%)  
Total cholesterol, mg/dL (SD) 179.5 (46.8) 178.7 (45.9) 0.922 183.2 (49.3) 176.6 (44.3) 0.452
HDL-C, mg/dL (SD) 48.6 (16.3) 47.5 (12.0) 0.679 49.3 (15.5) 47.4 (14.3) 0.499
LDL-C, mg/dL (SD) 98.0 (37.3) 95.8 (38.3) 0.762 100.5 (39.0) 95.0 (36.6) 0.444
Triglycerides, mg/dL (SD) 159.6 (103.7) 171.1 (116.2) 0.583 157.7 (114.5) 167.8 (104.3) 0.625
Insulin, mg/dL (SD) 16.4 (26.8) 36.0 (103.3) 0.265 16.1 (24.9) 28.7 (83.3) 0.278
BNP, pg/dL (SD) 57.3 (93.0) 66.8 (95.3) 0.695 55.7 (89.9) 64.4 (96.1) 0.717
Heart rate, bpm (SD) 70.5 (12.2) 74.7 (13.7) 0.085 72.6 (14.0) 71.8 (12.2) 0.748
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg (SD) 136.4 (19.1) 137.5 (21.1) 0.784 135.3 (21.3) 137.8 (19.0) 0.492
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg (SD) 74.4 (12.8) 73.8 (15.4) 0.794 73.6 (14.2) 74.5 (13.7) 0.727
CFRAdn Ratio (SD) 3.2 (0.6) 2.2 (0.3) < 0.001 2.9 (0.6) 2.8 (0.8) 0.682
%ΔCBFAch (SD) 59.8 (97.8) 20.7 (75.6) 0.012 130.7 (84.5) − 11.1 (35.8) < 0.001
  1. BMI, body mass index; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; CFRAdn Ratio, coronary flow reserve ratio in response to adenosine; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; MI, myocardial infarction; %ΔCBFAch, percentage change in coronary blood flow in response to acetylcholine