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Table 3 Plasma biomarkers at termination after 4 h fast in lean controls, ob/ob−/− treated and untreated mice

From: SGLT2 inhibition with empagliflozin improves coronary microvascular function and cardiac contractility in prediabetic ob/ob−/− mice

  Lean ob/ob−/− untreated ob/ob−/− treated
Cholesterol (mM) 2.6 ± 0.3 5.0 ± 0.9** 3.8 ± 0.3**
Triglycerides (mM) 0.5 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.3 0.5 ± 0.2
ALAT (µkat/l) 0.47 ± 0.13 8.81 ± 2.85** 2.63 ± 0.77**
Glucagon (pmol/l) 12.5 ± 9.5 16.4 ± 14.1 17.2 ± 5.4**
Insulin (ng/ml) 0.3 ± 0.2 7.3 ± 2.6** 6.5 ± 3.2**
Glucagon/insulin ratio 48.7 ± 50.1 1.7 ± 0.5** 3.0 ± 1.5**
Beta hydroxybutyrate (µM) 313 ± 97 133 ± 44 489 ± 56*
NT-proBNP (pg/ml) 8957 ± 1923 8216 ± 1462
l-Arginine (μM) 69 ± 13 26 ± 21** 41 ± 28**
ADMA (μM) 0.69 ± 0.07 0.79 ± 0.13* 0.80 ± 0.13*
l-Arginine/ADMA ratio 101 ± 16 33 ± 30** 51 ± 34**
SDMA (μM) 0.20 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.03** 0.16 ± 0.02**
  1. Functional endothelial data, measures of diabetes, kidney and liver status were studied. Statistical differences between groups was tested using Anova for parametric parameters (SDMA, insulin, and insulin/glucagon ratio) and Kruskal–Wallis test for non-parametric parameters (l-arginine, ADMA, l-arginine/ADMA ratio, glucagon, ALAT, cholesterol, triglycerides and beta hydroxybutyrate). Values are presented as mean ± SD for parametric data and mean ± SEM for non-parametric data, where *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 for between group analysis, and p ≤ 0.05 for ob/ob−/− treated and untreated group