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Table 2 Echocardiographic data in lean controls and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) treated and untreated mice

From: SGLT2 inhibition with empagliflozin improves coronary microvascular function and cardiac contractility in prediabetic ob/ob−/− mice

  Heart rate (bpm) Systolic area (mm2) Diastolic area (mm2) FAC (%) LVEDV (mm3) LVESV (mm3) SV (µl) CO (µl/min)
Lean (n = 12)
 BL 348 ± 46 5.7 ± 2.4 12.1 ± 2.5 55 ± 12 65.5 ± 17 25.8 ± 14.5 39.7 ± 6.0 13.8 ± 2.1
 5 weeks 333 ± 58 8.7 ± 1.9 14.2 ± 1.8 41 ± 8 78.4 ± 14.4 43.6 ± 13.0 34.8 ± 7.3 11.5 ± 2.7
 10 weeks 385 ± 45 7.5 ± 2.3 13.7 ± 2.7 46 ± 8 76.8 ± 16.4 35.8 ± 14.0 41.0 ± 6.1 15.7 ± 2.9
ob/ob−/− untreated (n = 21)
 BL 381 ± 44 6.7 ± 1.5 12.7 ± 1.3 48 ± 8 71.2 ± 8.5 33.1 ± 8.6 38.1 ± 5.5 14.8 ± 2.8
 5 weeks 358 ± 37 7.7 ± 1.6 14.4 ± 1.7 47 ± 7 82.5 ± 11.8 39.1 ± 9.6 43.4 ± 8.2* 15.0 ± 4.7*
 10 weeks 388 ± 43 7.9 ± 1.6 15.4 ± 1.8 49 ± 7 88.8 ± 12.5* 40.1 ± 9.7 48.7 ± 6.8* 19.0 ± 3.1
ob/ob−/− treated (n = 22)
 BL 402 ± 56* 6.5 ± 1.3 12.6 ± 1.5 49 ± 6 70.4 ± 10.2 31.5 ± 7.6 39.0 ± 5.3 15.6 ± 2.5
 5 weeks 389 ± 41* 6.6 ± 1.7* 13.1 ± 1.7 50 ± 8* 73.5 ± 11.7 32.5 ± 10.2* 41.0 ± 4.7* 15.9 ± 2.3*
 10 weeks 421 ± 39* 6.3 ± 1.4* 14.6 ± 1.5 57 ± 8* 83.3 ± 10.4 30.6 ± 8.3 52.7 ± 9.6* 22.3 ± 5.0*
  1. Cardiac function was studied in lean and leptin-deficient (ob/ob−/−) treated and untreated mice over time by non-invasive transthoracic ultrasound. Heart rate, short axis systolic and diastolic area, and fractional area change (FAC) was recorded. Statistical significance between groups was tested using Anova, and where there were differences Turkey’s multiple comparison test was carried out. Values are presented as mean ± SD, where *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 for significant difference between lean controls and ob/ob−/− groups, p ≤ 0.05 for ob/ob−/− treated and untreated group. BL = baseline, mice at 9 weeks of age, 5 weeks = 5 weeks after intervention start, mice at 16 weeks of age, 10 weeks = 10 weeks after intervention start, mice at 21 weeks of age, LVEDV = left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVESV = left ventricular end-systolic volume, SV = stroke volume, CO = cardiac output