Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Baseline characteristics and endpoints incidence of all diabetic patients and divided according to carotid plaque score

From: Prognostic impact of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaques on the development of micro- and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro type 2 diabetes cohort study

Characteristics All patients (n = 478) Plaque score 0–1 point (n = 102) Plaque score 2 points (n = 276) Plaque score 3–4 points (n = 100) p-value
Age (years) 60.0 (9.1) 54.3 (9.3) 60.3 (8.2) 65.3 (8.1) < 0.001
Male sex (%) 36.0 33.35 35.0 41.0 0.47
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.5 (4.8) 30.4 (4.7) 29.6 (4.9) 28.1 (4.6) 0.003
Smoking, current/past (%) 44.2 34.3 43.8 55.0 0.012
Physical activity (% active) 22.1 29.4 24.2 14.0 0.028
Diabetes duration (years) 8 (3–15) 6 (2–12) 8 (3–15) 10 (5–18) 0.008
Chronic diabetic complications (%)
 Cerebrovascular disease 9.0 6.9 6.5 20.0 < 0.001
 Coronary artery disease 16.1 8.8 17.0 23.0 0.024
 Peripheral artery disease 16.5 6.9 13.7 36.0 < 0.001
 Retinopathy 33.5 24.5 32.5 47.0 0.003
 Nephropathy 29.3 33.3 27.1 32.0 0.41
 Peripheral neuropathy 29.9 19.6 28.9 42.0 0.002
Diabetes treatment (%)
 Metformin 88.1 86.3 89.5 85.0 0.42
 Sulfonylureas 43.7 41.2 43.7 45.0 0.85
 Insulin 48.1 42.2 49.1 51.0 0.39
 Aspirin 92.2 88.2 93.1 92.9 0.28
Dyslipidemia (%) 88.1 79.4 89.5 94.0 0.003
 Statins use (%) 77.0 64.7 78.3 87.0 0.001
Arterial hypertension (%) 85.8 78.4 86.6 91.0 0.031
 Number of anti-hypertensive drugs 3 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 3 (2–4) < 0.001
Blood pressures (mmHg)
 Clinic SBPa 140 (19) 139 (19) 141 (19) 141 (19) 0.62
 Clinic DBPa 79 (10) 80 (9) 79 (11) 76 (11) 0.006
Laboratory variables
 Fasting glycemia (mmol/l)a 8.0 (2.7) 8.0 (3.1) 8.1 (2.7) 8.1 (2.6) 0.92
 HbA1c (%)a 7.7 (1.5) 7.7 (1.6) 7.7 (1.5) 7.5 (1.4) 0.35
 Triacylglycerol (mmol/l)a 1.9 (1.5) 1.8 (1.2) 1.9 (1.6) 2.0 (1.4) 0.35
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)a 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 0.95
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)a 2.8 (0.9) 2.8 (0.9) 2.8 (0.9) 2.8 (0.8) 0.90
 Glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) 82 (20) 88 (20) 82 (20) 74 (19) <0.001
 Albuminuria (mg/24 h) 14 (7–38) 17 (9–43) 13 (7–32) 15 (7–46) 0.10
Outcomesb
 Total CVEs 116 (25.8) 15 (15.2) 59 (22.3) 42 (50.1) < 0.001
 All-cause mortality 115 (23.8) 16 (15.5) 55 (19.3) 44 (46.3) < 0.001
 Cardiovascular mortality 56 (11.6) 7 (6.8) 29 (10.2) 20 (21.0) 0.005
 Retinopathy (incident/worsening) (n = 425) 131 (50.4) 22 (35.8) 81 (53.5) 28 (60.5) 0.16
 Renal composite 156 (37.3) 34 (38.6) 81 (32.5) 41 (51.2) 0.044
 Peripheral neuropathy (incident/worsening) (n = 419) 83 (19.8%) 19 (20.4%) 48 (19.4%) 16 (20.8%) 0.95
  1. Values are proportions, and means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile range)
  2. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, CVEs cardiovascular events
  3. aValues are mean values obtained during the 1st year of follow-up
  4. bValues are absolute numbers (incidence rate per 1000 patient-years of follow-up), except for peripheral neuropathy that are absolute numbers (proportions)