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Table 1 Characteristics of study group for adolescents with T1DM and healthy controls

From: Low cholesterol efflux capacity and abnormal lipoprotein particles in youth with type 1 diabetes: a case control study

Variable Diabetes (N = 78) Controls (N = 59) P-value Adjusted P-value
Demographic and clinical characteristics
Age, years 16.7 ± 1.8 17.3 ± 2.4 0.090  
Sex female (%) 45 (57.7%) 28 (47.5) 0.234  
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.3 ± 3.7 21.8 ± 3.8 0.020  
BMI z score 0.46 ± 0.86 − 0.06 ± 1.06 0.002  
Ethnicity, n = Caucasian (%) 58 (74%) 26 (44%) <0.001  
Diabetes duration, years 3 (2.0–4.0)   
Insulin dose (units/kg/day) 0.81 ± 0.32   
Carotid intima media thickness mean (mm) 0.478 ± 0.057 0.472 ± 0.054 0.530 0.964
Carotid intima media thickness max (mm) 0.538 ± 0.073 0.525 ± 0.063 0.297 0.942
Clinical and lab values
SBP 111 ± 11 111 ± 10 0.717 0.411
SBP z score − 0.29 ± 0.94 − 0.19 ± 0.86 0.490 0.295
DBP 62 ± 8 63 ± 8 0.357 0.365
DBP z score − 0.42 ± 0.69 − 0.37 ± 0.81 0.695 0.273
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 142.2 ± 26.1 133.9 ± 23.1 0.060 0.046
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 56.9 ± 10.2 57.9 ± 10.6 0.592 0.448
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 74.6 ± 24.8 66.3 ± 22.2 0.051 0.041
Triglycerides, mg/dL 83.4 ± 33.3 81.4 ± 30.9 0.726 0.885
High sensitive C-reactive protein, mg/L 0.6 (0.25–1.45) 0.3 (0.2–0.8) 0.019 0.074
HDL efflux capacity 0.98 ± 0.11 1.05 ± 0.15 0.003 0.038
HbA1c 8.40 ± 1.35 5.33 ± 0.43 <0.001 <0.001
NMR values
HDL particle number 30.50 (27.7–33.9) 30.6 (29.1–32.7) 0.755 0.364
Small HDL particle number 11.20 (5.7–15.3) 7.0 (3.2–13.1) 0.021 0.026
Medium HDL particle number 11.20 (8.5–14.5) 12.3 (9–19.4) 0.049 0.013
Large HDL particle number 7.8 (6.1–9.7) 8.4 (6.3–10.4) 0.235 0.433
HDL-z 9.9 (9.5–10.2) 9.9 (9.6–10.3) 0.314 0.373
LDL particle number 724 (563–985) 622 (476–794) 0.011 0.017
Small LDL particle number 300 (0.1–431) 242 (0.1–343) 0.053 0.078
Large LDL particle number 259 (80–404) 197 (54–359) 0.243 0.129
LDL-z 20.6 (20.1–21.1) 20.7 (20.1–21.2) 0.510 0.931
VLDL particle number 40.5 (29.5–49.1) 35.5 (29.9–46.5) 0.163 0.299
Small VLDL particle number 31.1 (23.6–37.5) 27 (15.2–32.4) 0.023 0.028
Medium VLDL particle number 8.3 (3.9–13.2) 9.3 (4.5–12.2) 0.710 0.295
Large VLDL particle number 1.8 (1.1–3.1) 2.2 (1.2–4.5) 0.187 0.296
VLDL z 46.5 (43.9–49.2) 49.5 (45.2–53.2) 0.005 0.007
Apolipoprotein A 141.6 (129.7–157.3) 143.1 (128.6–157.2) 0.802 0.963
Apolipoprotein B 75.9 (63.7–83.4) 62.8 (53.3–74.3) 0.001 0.001
Ratio of Apo A/Apo B 2.03 (1.59–2.32) 2.29 (1.92–2.69) 0.004 0.004
  1. All values are expressed as mean ± SD or median (25–75th percentile). P-value is calculated between groups for variables using unpaired t-test for continuous variables, Pearson’s Chi squared test for categorical variables and Rank sum for non-parametric tests. Adjusted P values show the significance level of the differences based on robust regression models adjusted for ethnicity and BMI z score. z is reported as nanometer; Tg and cholesterol are reported as milligrams per deciliter, HDLp (total, small, medium and large) are reported as micromoles per liter, whereas LDLp and VLDLp (all sizes) are reported as nanomoles per liter
  2. Italic values indicate significance of P value (P < 0.05 )