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Table 2 Follow up 6 (a), and 12 months (b)

From: Cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRTd) in failing heart patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and treated by glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) therapy vs. conventional hypoglycemic drugs: arrhythmic burden, hospitalizations for heart failure, and CRTd responders rate

Parameters GLP-1 agonist therapy (n 288) No GLP-1 agonist therapy (n 271) p value
(a) 6 months follow up
 Plasma glucose (mg/dL) 189.2 ± 16.4 189.6 ± 15.1 n.s.
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 54.1 ± 12.3 54.0 ± 12.1 n.s
 Basal GLP-1 (pmol/L) 6.84 ± 0.71 6.02 ± 0.65 < 0.05*
 Postprandial GLP-1 (pmol/L) 19.7 ± 2.4 11.5 ± 2.3 < 0.05*
 I NYHA class 17 (5.9) 7 (2.6) < 0.05*
 II NYHA class 117 (40.6) 79 (29.1) < 0.05*
 III NYHA class 143 (49.6) 172 (63.5) < 0.05*
 IV NYHA class 11 (3.8) 13 (4.8) n.s
 QRS duration 121.8 ± 9.8 123.5 ± 9.4 n.s.
 6MWT 309.7 ± 24.6 226.9 ± 26.7 < 0.05*
 Echocardiographic parameters
  LVEF (%) 32 ± 8 28 ± 6 < 0.05*
  LVEDd (mm) 66 ± 4 63 ± 7 n.s.
  LVESd (mm) 36 ± 4 38 ± 5 n.s.
  LVEDv (mL) 165 ± 24 170 ± 40 n.s.
  LVESv (mL) 111 ± 16 119 ± 32 < 0.05*
  Mitral insufficiency
   + (%) 141 (48.9) 135 (49.8) n.s.
   ++ (%) 114 (39.6) 101 (37.3) < 0.05*
   +++ (%) 33 (11.5) 35 (12.9) n.s.
  CRTd responders (%) 193 (67.4) 155 (57.2) < 0.05*
 Biomarkers
  Lymphocytes 7.89 ± 2.17 7.52 ± 2.39 n.s.
  Neutrophiles 5.37 ± 1.82 5.67 ± 2.12 n.s.
  BNP (pg/mL) 153.58 ± 12.64 271.43 ± 13.7 < 0.05*
  CRP (mg/L) 7.25 ± 0.69 8.66 ± 0. 94 < 0.05*
  IL6 (pg/mL) 5.53 ± 0.02 6.24 ± 0.04 < 0.05*
  TNFa (pg/mL) 5.36 ± 0.02 6.32 ± 0.02 < 0.05*
(b) 12 months follow up
 Plasma glucose (mg/dL) 185.3 ± 15.8 186.6 ± 15.5 n.s.
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 52.7 ± 12.5 53.1 ± 12.4 n.s.
 Basal GLP-1 (pmol/L) 6.76 ± 0.74 6.02 ± 0.67 n.s.
 Postprandial GLP-1 (pmol/L) 19.9 ± 2.5 11.5 ± 2.3 < 0.05*
 I NYHA class 17 (5.9) 7 (2.6) < 0.05*
 II NYHA class 115 (39.9) 80 (29.5) < 0.05*
 III NYHA class 144 (50) 170 (62.7) < 0.05*
 IV NYHA class 12 (4.2) 14 (5.2) n.s
 QRS duration 121.8 ± 9.8 123.5 ± 9.4 n.s.
 6MWT 311.5 ± 25.2 228.2 ± 26.5 < 0.05*
 Echocardiographic parameters
  LVEF (%) 32 ± 8 28 ± 6 < 0.05*
  LVEDd (mm) 66 ± 4 63 ± 7 n.s.
  LVESd (mm) 36 ± 4 38 ± 5 n.s.
  LVEDv (mL) 165 ± 24 170 ± 40 n.s.
  LVESv (mL) 111 ± 16 119 ± 32 < 0.05*
  Mitral insufficiency
   + (%) 144 (50) 137 (50.6) n.s.
   ++ (%) 116 (40.3) 102 (37.6) < 0.05*
   +++ (%) 28 (9.7) 32 (11.8) n.s.
  CRTd responders (%) 193 (67.4) 155 (57.2) < 0.05*
 Biomarkers
  Lymphocytes 7.90 ± 2.14 7.66 ± 2.36 n.s.
  Neutrophiles 5.35 ± 1.81 5.56 ± 2.09 n.s.
  BNP (pg/mL) 146.38 ± 14.14 262.22 ± 12.95 < 0.05*
  CRP (mg/L) 7.23 ± 0.57 8.32 ± 0. 87 < 0.05*
  IL6 (pg/mL) 5.49 ± 0.02 6.32 ± 0.04 < 0.05*
  TNFa (pg/mL) 5.34 ± 0.02 6.28 ± 0.02 < 0.05*
  1. Clinical characteristics of study population as overall patients (n 559), and GLP-1 agonist therapy (n 288) vs. no-GLP-1 agonist therapy patients (n 271) at 6th and 12th month of follow up
  2. HbA1c: glicated hemoglobin type A1c; GLP-1: glucagone like peptide 1; NYHA: New York Heart Association; 6MWT: 6 min walking test; CRTd: cardiac resynchronization with a defibrillator; BNP: B type natriuretic peptide; IL6: interleukine 6; LVEF: left ventricle ejection fraction; LVEDd: left ventricle end diastolic diameter; LVESd: left ventricle end systolic diameter; LVEDv left ventricle end diastolic volume; LVESv: left ventricle end sistolic volume; mitral insufficiency +: low grade; ++: moderate; +++: more than moderate; TNFa: tumor necrosis factor alpha. n.s.: not statistical significant
  3. p value < 0.05 is statistical significant, and marked as *