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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study population as overall patients (n 559), and GLP-1 agonist therapy (n 288) vs. no-GLP-1 agonist therapy patients (n 271) at baseline

From: Cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRTd) in failing heart patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and treated by glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) therapy vs. conventional hypoglycemic drugs: arrhythmic burden, hospitalizations for heart failure, and CRTd responders rate

Parameters Overall population (n 559) GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy (n 288) No GLP-1 agonist therapy (n 271) p value
Age 72 ± 6 72 ± 7 72 ± 6
Male (%) 403 (72.1) 206 (71.5) 197 (72.6)
Smokers (%) 108 (52.4) 49 (49.5) 59 (55.1)
Hypertension (%) 394 (70.5) 200 (69.4) 194 (71.6)
Dyslipidemia (%) 193 (34.5) 101 (35.1) 92 (33.9)
Plasma glucose (mg/dL) 197.4 ± 21.4 197.4 ± 24.6 197.8 ± 23.2
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 58.1 ± 16.1 58.2 ± 16.2 58.0 ± 16.0
Basal GLP-1 (pmol/L) 6.29 ± 0.65 5.86 ± 0.68 5.82 ± 0.62
Postprandial GLP-1 (pmol/L) 14.49 ± 2.79 13.17 ± 2.76 12.5 ± 2.83
BMI > 30 kg/m2 (%) 35 (6.3) 18 (6.2) 17 (6.3)
COPD (%) 96 (17.2) 50 (17.4) 46 (17)
Renal disease (%) 107 (19.1) 56 (19.4) 51 (18.9)
Ischemic heart failure (%) 381 (68%) 195 (67.7) 186 (68.6)
II NYHA class (%) 133 (23.8) 67 (23.3) 66 (24.4)
III NYHA class (%) 426 (76.2) 221 (76.7) 205 (75.6)
QRS duration (ms) 138.5 ± 9.4 137.8 ± 9.2 139.2 ± 9.6
6MWT 187.90 ± 26.10 188.82 ± 26.45 186.93 ± 25.74
CRTd bipolar pacing (%) 121 (21.6) 65 (22.6) 56 (20.6)
CRTd multipolar pacing (%) 438 (78.4) 227 (78.8) 211 (77.8)
Echocardiographic parameters   288 271  
 LVEF (%) 27 ± 5 27 ± 6 28 ± 4
 LVEDd (mm) 67 ± 8 69 ± 6 66 ± 9
 LVESd (mm) 43 ± 7 42 ± 6 44 ± 8
 LVEDv (mL) 197 ± 39 194 ± 29 200 ± 48
 LVESv (mL) 135 ± 28 133 ± 21 138 ± 35
 Mitral insufficiency
  + (%) 280 (50.1) 131 (45.5) 133 (49.2)
  ++ (%) 217 (38.8) 110 (38.2) 106 (39.1)
  +++ (%) 62 (11.1) 47 (16.3) 32 (11.8)
Medications at baseline
 Amiodarone (%) 117 (20.9) 60 (20.8) 57 (21)
 Aspirin (%) 225 (40.2) 119 (41.3) 106 (39.1)
 ACE inhibitors (%) 152 (27.2) 132 (45.8) 120 (44.2)
 ARS blockers (%) 168 (30) 85 (29.5) 83 (30.6)
 Sacubitril/valsartan (%) 140 (25) 73 (25.3) 67 (24.7)
 Beta blockers
  Carvedilol (%) 171 (30.6) 89 (30.9) 82 (30.3)
  Bisoprolol (%) 82 (39.8) 37 (37.4) 45 (42)
 Warfarin (%) 196 (35.1) 97 (33.7) 99 (36.5)
 NOAC (%) 111 (19.9) 57 (19.8) 54 (19.9)
 Tiklopidine (%) 10 (1.8) 5 (1.7) 5 (1.8)
 Calcium antagonist (%) 19 (3.4) 11 (3.8) 8 (3.0)
 Ivabradine (%) 165 (29.5) 89 (30.9) 76 (28)
 Digoxin (%) 176 (31.5) 87 (30.2) 89 (32.8)
 Loop diuretics (%) 506 (90.5) 265 (92) 241 (88.9)
 Aldosterone blockers (%) 361 (64.6) 180 (62.5) 181 (66.8)
 Statins (%) 397 (71) 202 (70.1) 195 (72)
Anti diabetic drugs, n (%)
 Insulins (%) 63 (11.3) 33 (11.5) 30 (11.1)
 Metformin (%) 175 (31.3) 87 (30.2) 90 (33.2)
 Sulfonylureas (%) 109 (19.5) 56 (19.4) 53 (19.6)
 Thiazolidinediones (%) 41 (7.3) 22 (7.6) 19 (7.1)
 GLP-1 agonist (%) 288 (48.1) 288 (100)
 GLP1 agonist (%)
  Liraglutide 71 (12) 68 (23.6)
  Lixenatide 117 (21) 220 (76.4)
 DPP4 inhibitors (%)
  Sitagliptin
  Linagliptin
Biomarkers
 Lymphocytes 7.92 ± 2.13 7.92 ± 2.12 7.62 ± 2.36
 Neutrophiles 5.31 ± 1.81 5.32 ± 1.80 5.26 ± 2.07
 BNP (pg/mL) 365.5 ± 9.98 353.71 ± 13.45 378.03 ± 14.8
 CRP (mg/L) 9.39 ± 0.51 9.43 ± 0. 57 9.14 ± 0.56
 IL6 (pg/mL) 6.65 ± 0.03 6.58 ± 0.02 6.74 ± 0.05
 TNFa (pg/mL) 6.37 ± 0.01 6.36 ± 0.02 6.37 ± 0.02
  1. HbA1c: glicated hemoglobin type A1c; GLP-1: glucagone like peptide 1; BMI: body mass index; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NYHA: New York Heart Association; 6MWT: 6 min walking test; n.s.: not statistical significant; LVEF: left ventricle ejection fraction; LVEDd: left ventricle end diastolic diameter; LVESd: left ventricle end systolic diameter; LVEDv left ventricle end diastolic volume; LVESv: left ventricle end sistolic volume; mitral insufficiency +: low grade; ++: moderate; +++: more than moderate; ACE: angiotensin converting enzyme; ARS: angiotensin receptor; NOAC: new oral anticoagulant; DPP4: Di-Peptidil-Peptidasi IV; BNP: B type natriuretic peptide; CRP: C reactive protein; IL6: interleukine 6; TNFa: tumor necrosis factor alpha. Symbol “–” is for p value > 0.05