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Table 1 Role of adipokines in atherosclerosis

From: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in atherosclerosis: a double-edged sword

Adipocytokines Role Function References
Adiponectin Protective Improve endothelial dysfunction Modulate immune response Promote cholesterol efflux Polarization of macrophages AMPK agonist [80,81,82] [83] [84] [85] [86]
Vaspin Protective Inhibit ros generation [90]
Apelin Protective Enhance cholesterol efflux [91]
Ometin-1 Protective Reduce activation of inflammatory macrophages [92]
Leptin Detrimental Promote endothelial dysfunction Promote macrophage infiltration VSMCS proliferation [93] [94] [97]
Resistin Detrimental Promote endothelial dysfunction Facilitate macrophage recruitment [94] [98]
Chemerin Detrimental Promote endothelial dysfunction Promote leukocyte recruitment [95] [99]
Visfatin Detrimental VSMCS proliferation Macrophage maturation Polarization of macrophages [109] [114] [115]
FABP Detrimental Activate inflammatory macrophages [116]
LCN-2 Detrimental Activate inflammatory macrophages [116]