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Table 1 Characteristics of study population in pregnancy and at 1-year postpartum, stratified into the following 4 groups based on gestational glucose tolerance status: normal GCT NGT, abnormal GCT NGT, GIGT, and GDM

From: Rising plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and hypoadiponectinemia characterize the cardiometabolic biomarker profile of women with recent gestational diabetes

  Normal GCT NGT Abnormal GCT NGT GIGT GDM P
(n = 76) (n = 99) (n = 59) (n = 105)
In pregnancy
 Age (years) 35 ± 4 35 ± 4 34 ± 4 35 ± 4 0.71
 Ethnicity 0.39
  White (%) 75.0 74.7 67.8 65.8  
  Asian (%) 6.6 9.1 11.9 17.1  
  Other (%) 18.4 16.2 20.3 17.1  
 Family history of T2DM (%) 54.0 59.6 64.4 64.8 0.46
 Fasting glucose on OGTT (mmol/L) 4.3 ± 0.4 4.4 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.7 < 0.0001
 1-h glucose on OGTT (mmol/L) 7.7 ± 1.2 8.4 ± 1.3 10.2 ± 1.3 11.3 ± 1.6 < 0.0001
 2-h glucose on OGTT (mmol/L) 6.7 ± 1.1 7.4 ± 1.0 8.4 ± 1.1 10.4 ± 1.5 < 0.0001
 3-h glucose on OGTT (mmol/L) 5.9 ± 1.2 5.8 ± 1.3 7.2 ± 1.3 8.1 ± 1.7 < 0.0001
At 1-year postpartum
 Months breastfeeding (months) 11 (6–12) 10 (6–12) 9 (4–12) 10 (3–12) 0.36
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.4 (21.5–28.4) 23.6 (21.8–27.8) 25.4 (23.1–30.1) 25.4 (22.5–29.4) 0.12
 Waist circumference (cm) 87 ± 12 85 ± 11 89 ± 13 89 ± 14 0.05
 Fasting glucose on OGTT (mmol/L) 4.6 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 0.6 4.9 ± 0.5 < 0.0001
 2-h glucose on OGTT (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 1.2 6.1 ± 1.5 6.4 ± 1.8 7.0 ± 1.9 < 0.0001
 Current glucose tolerance status < 0.0001
  Normal (%) 97.2 87.4 77.8 69.7  
  Pre-diabetes/diabetes (%) 2.8 12.6 22.2 30.3  
 Adiponectin (μg/mL) 10.0 ± 4.0 9.8 ± 3.9 8.2 ± 3.1 8.5 ± 2.9 0.002
 Chemerin (ng/mL) 55.8 ± 12.7 55.3 ± 14.8 58.6 ± 13.9 54.8 ± 16.0 0.48
 RBP-4 (mg/L) 35.8 ± 14.8 37.5 ± 13.3 34.9 ± 10.3 35.3 ± 9.9 0.56
 CRP (mg/L) 1.2 (0.6–3.7) 1.0 (0.5–2.9) 1.3 (0.6–2.7) 1.1 (0.7–3.1) 0.92
 PAI-1 (pg/mL) 7354 (6964–7683) 7308 (6914–7667) 7114 (6558–7612) 7175 (6667–7540) 0.09
  1. P-values refer to overall comparison across the 4 groups by either one-way analysis of variance or Kruskal–Wallis test for continuous variables, or either χ2 or Fisher exact test for categorical variables. Italic indicates P < 0.05