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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients

From: Impact of dapagliflozin on left ventricular diastolic function of patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus with chronic heart failure

Clinical characteristics
 Age, years 68 (60–73)
 Gender (female), n (%) 21 (38)
 DM duration, years 7.0 (5.0–11.5)
 Body weight, kg 66.5 (56.8–76.9)
 BSA, m2 1.73 (1.57–1.90)
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 130 ± 16
 Heart rate, bpm 71 ± 12
 BNP, pg/mL 27.9 (9.0–58.2)
 BUN, mg/dL 14.7 (12.1–19.0)
 Creatinine, mg/dL 0.80 ± 0.20
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 70.6 ± 17.0
 HbA1c, % 6.9 (6.7–7.6)
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 13.7 ± 1.7
 Hematocrit,  % 41 ± 4.7
 Lipid profiles, mg/dL
  Triglycerides 127 (83.7–185)
  LDL cholesterol 98 (86–118)
  HDL cholesterol 51.5 (45.0–60.2)
 Uric acid, mg/dL 5.1 (4.4–5.9)
HF classification, n (%)
 HFpEF 37 (69)
 HFrEF 7 (13)
 HFmrEF 9 (17)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension 43 (81)
 Dyslipidemia 42 (79)
 Cardiovascular event 12 (21)
Medications, n (%)
 CCB 19 (36)
 ACEI/ARB 42 (79)
 β-Blocker 27 (51)
 Diuretics 10 (19)
 Statin 37 (70)
 Antidiabetic drugs
  DPP-4I 40 (75)
  GLP-1 RA 1 (2)
  SU 11 (21)
  α-GI 9 (17)
  Thiazolidinedione 11 (21)
  Metformin 14 (26)
Echocardiographic parameters
 LV end-diastolic volume, mL 74.2 (55.1–104.1)
 LV end-systolic volume, mL 24.7 (17.0–54.5)
 LVEF, % 62.3 (49.3–68.3)
 LVMI, g/m2 75.0 (61.7–92.0)
 LAVI, mL/m2 31 (23–45)
 e′, cm/s 6.36 ± 1.73
 E/e′ 9.3 (7.7–11.8)
 E, cm/s 58.1 (46.8–70.9)
 A, cm/s 76.1 ± 17.8
 E/A 0.71 (0.6–0.80)
  1. Data are mean ± SD for normally distributed data and median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed data, or n (%)
  2. DM diabetes mellitus, BSA body surface area, BNP plasma brain natriuretic peptide, LDL low density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, HFpEF heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, HFrEF heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, HFmrEF heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction, CCB calcium channel blocker, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, DPP-4I dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, GLP-1 RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors agonists, SU sulfonylureas, α-GI α-glucosidase inhibitors, LVMI left ventricular mass index, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LAVI left atrial volume index, E peak early diastolic mitral flow velocity, e′ spectral pulsed-wave Doppler-derived early diastolic velocity from the septal mitral annulus