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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of diabetic participants with different severities of frailty

From: Both pre-frailty and frailty increase healthcare utilization and adverse health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Variables No frailty (n = 436,521) Pre-frail Frailty p value
1 component (n = 107,757) 2 components (n = 15,101) ≥ 3 components (n = 1416)
Demographic profiles
 Age (years) 54.8 ± 13.2 60.8 ± 14.3 69.4 ± 12.7 75.1 ± 11.2 < 0.01
 Female (%) 197,022 (45.1) 53,089 (49.3) 7631 (50.5) 685 (48.4) < 0.01
Severity of diabetic complications
 aDCSI scores 0.2 ± 0.6 0.5 ± 1 1 ± 1.3 1.4 ± 1.5 < 0.01
Comorbidity profiles
 Charlson comorbidity index 1.7 ± 1.4 2.8 ± 2.1 4.4 ± 2.3 5.4 ± 2.4 < 0.01
 Hypertension (%) 221,259 (50.7) 70,979 (65.9) 13,259 (87.8) 1299 (91.7) < 0.01
 Hyperlipidemia (%) 179,826 (41.2) 48,416 (44.9) 6606 (43.8) 452 (31.9) < 0.01
 Chronic liver disease (%) 96,954 (22.2) 34,510 (32) 5426 (35.9) 534 (37.7) < 0.01
 COPD (%) 19,644 (4.5) 20,574 (19.1) 6594 (43.7) 839 (59.3) < 0.01
 Chronic kidney disease (%) 45,991 (10.5) 26,097 (24.2) 6719 (44.5) 787 (55.6) < 0.01
 Atrial fibrillation (%) 25,863 (5.9) 15,794 (14.7) 4293 (28.4) 533 (37.6) < 0.01
 Prior coronary atherosclerosis (%) 52,211 (12) 29,372 (27.3) 7489 (49.6) 825 (58.3) < 0.01
 Cerebrovascular disease (%) 35,748 (8.2) 25,100 (23.3) 7459 (49.4) 970 (68.5) < 0.01
 Peripheral vascular disease (%) 5673 (1.3) 3101 (2.9) 855 (5.7) 99 (7) < 0.01
 Malignancy (%) 17,791 (4.1) 9713 (9) 2451 (16.2) 260 (18.4) < 0.01
 Gout (%) 58,414 (13.4) 22,134 (20.5) 4189 (27.7) 385 (27.2) < 0.01
 Osteoarthritis (any site) (%) 77,694 (17.8) 36,908 (34.3) 8183 (54.2) 921 (65) < 0.01
 Osteoporosis (%) 20,543 (4.7) 11,277 (10.5) 2962 (19.6) 376 (26.6) < 0.01
 Obesity (%) 7051 (1.6) 1626 (1.5) 198 (1.3) 12 (0.9) < 0.01
 Mental illnesses (%) 52,794 (12.1) 24,302 (22.6) 5329 (35.3) 567 (40) < 0.01
 Prior hypoglycemia (%) 461 (0.1) 350 (0.3) 136 (0.9) 17 (1.2) < 0.01
Substance use history
 Smoking (%) 2761 (0.6) 948 (0.9) 151 (1) 9 (0.6) < 0.01
 Alcoholism (%) 3679 (0.8) 1423 (1.3) 240 (1.6) 19 (1.3) < 0.01
Medications with potential influences on functional status
 Aspirin (%) 128,686 (29.5) 51,704 (48) 10,760 (71.3) 1102 (77.8) < 0.01
 β-blocker (%) 193,727 (44.4) 65,833 (61.1) 11,624 (77) 1069 (75.5) < 0.01
 ACEI (%) 126,276 (28.9) 45,194 (41.9) 9529 (61.3) 873 (61.7) < 0.01
 ARB (%) 112,080 (25.7) 38,508 (35.7) 7778 (51.5) 695 (49.1) < 0.01
 Clopidogrel (%) 11,304 (2.6) 7875 (7.3) 2081 (13.8) 192 (13.6) < 0.01
 Statin (%) 142,839 (32.7) 39,143 (36.3) 5730 (37.9) 417 (29.5) < 0.01
 Fibrate (%) 68,427 (15.7) 20,376 (18.9) 3080 (20.4) 196 (13.8) < 0.01
 Allopurinol (%) 13,087 (3) 5914 (5.49) 1311 (8.7) 115 (8.1) < 0.01
 Warfarin (%) 4708 (1.1) 3286 (3.1) 844 (5.6) 87 (6.1) < 0.01
 Benzodiazepine (any) (%) 250,841 (57.5) 83,345 (77.4) 13,542 (89.7) 1278 (90.3) < 0.01
 Anti-depressants (%) 72,752 (16.7) 32,912 (30.5) 7028 (46.5) 767 (54.2) < 0.01
 Anti-psychotics (%) 110,884 (25.4) 43,810 (40.7) 8769 (58.1) 960 (67.8) < 0.01
Oral anti-diabetic agents/Insulin
 Biguanides (%) 220,362 (50.5) 46,116 (42.8) 5327 (35.3) 344 (24.3) < 0.01
 Sulfonylurea (%) 204,599 (46.9) 43,179 (40.1) 5005 (33.1) 339 (23.9) < 0.01
 Meglitinides (%) 21,637 (5) 5719 (5.3) 940 (6.2) 63 (4.5) < 0.01
 α-Glucosidase inhibitors (%) 27,784 (6.4) 7028 (6.5) 920 (6.1) 51 (3.6) < 0.01
 TZD (%) 18,442 (4.2) 3530 (3.3) 392 (2.6) 28 (2) < 0.01
 DPP4 inhibitors (%) 5810 (1.3) 1141 (1.1) 119 (0.8) 7 (0.5) < 0.01
 Insulin (%) 21,148 (4.8) 6073 (5.6) 1112 (7.4) 109 (7.7) < 0.01
  1. ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, aDCSI adapted diabetes complications severity index, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DPP4 dipeptidyl peptidase 4, TZD thiazolidinedione