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Fig. 1 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 1

From: Association between insulin resistance and the development of cardiovascular disease

Fig. 1

A simplified model of insulin resistance. The loss of suppressive effects of insulin on lipolysis in adipocytes increases free fatty acids. Increased free fatty acids flux to the liver stimulates the assembly and secretion of VLDL resulting in hypertriglyceridemia. Triglycerides (TG) in VLDL are transferred to both HDL and LDL through the action of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). This process results in a triglyceride-enriched HDL and LDL particle. Triglyceride-enriched HDL is more rapidly cleared from the circulation by the kidney, leaving fewer HDL particles to accept cholesterol from the vasculature. In the glucose metabolism, the insulin resistance results in decreased hepatic glycogen synthesis, owing to decreased activation of glycogen synthase, increased hepatic gluconeogenesis, and glucose delivery by the liver

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