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Table 5 Baseline characteristics, clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic results in persons grouped by body mass index (BMI)

From: Overweight and obesity impair left ventricular systolic function as measured by left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain

  I II III Significance between groups, p < 0.05
Normal weight Overweight Obesity
BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2
Patients, n = 48 Patients, n = 163 Patients, n = 173
Controls, n = 73 Controls, n = 84 Controls, n = 27
Demographic data
 Age, years
  Patients 60.5 (2.8) 60.8 (3.1) 60.7 (3.1) ns
  Controls 62.9 (5.8) 63.8 (5.7) 64.5 (5.8) ns
 Female, n (%)
  Patients 15 (31.2) 39 (23.9) 59 (34.1) II–III
  Controls 44 (60.3) 36 (42.8) 11 (40.7) I–II
Medical history
 Diabetes duration, years
  Patients 6.4 (5.8) 6.4 (5.4) 6.8 (5.2) ns
  Controls 0 0 0 ns
 Angina, n (%)
  Patients 4 (8.3) 10 (6.1) 25 (14.4) II–III
  Controls 0 3 (3.6) 0 ns
 Myocardial infarction, n (%)
  Patients 3 (6.2) 9 (5.5) 12 (6.9) ns
  Controls 1 (1.4) 2 (2.4) 2 (7.4) ns
 Coronary revascularization, n (%)
  Patients 2 (4.2) 10 (6.1) 13 (7.5) ns
  Controls 1 (1.4) 1 (1.2) 2 (7.4) ns
 Heart failure, n (%)
  Patients 1 (2.1) 1 (0.6) 6 (3.5) ns
  Controls 0 0 0 ns
 Hypertension, n (%)
  Patients 31 (64.6) 101 (62.0) 112 (64.7) ns
  Controls 12 (16.4) 21 (25.0) 10 (37.0) I–III
Laboratory analyses
 HbA1c, %     
  Patients 5.5 (0.9) 6.0 (1.0) 6.1 (1.0) I–II, I–III
 Triglycerides, mmol/L
  Patients 1.2 (0.6) 1.7 (0.9) 1.9 (0.9) I–II, I–III
  Controls 1.3 (1.6) 1.4 (0.6) 1.6 (0.9) ns
 Triglycerides, mg/dL
  Patients 106.2 (53.1) 150.4 (79.6) 168.1 (79.6) I–II, I–III
  Controls 115.0 (141.6) 123.9 (53.1) 141.6 (79.7) ns
 LDL-C, mmol/L
  Patients 2.7 (0.7) 2.7 (0.8) 2.5 (0.6) ns
  Controls 3.5 (0.8) 3.4 (0.9) 3.5 (1.0) ns
 LDL-C, mg/dL
  Patients 104.4 (27.1) 104.4 (30.9) 96.7 (23.2) ns
  Controls 135.3 (30.9) 131.5 (34.8) 135.3 (38.7) ns
 Microalbuminuria, n (%)
  Patients 3 (6.2) 27 (16.6) 30 (17.3) ns
  Controls 2 (2.7) 2 (2.4) 3 (11.1) ns
 Creatinine, µmol/L
  Patients 89.4 (12.8) 89.6 (18.1) 87.4 (15.8) ns
  Controls 73.3 (11.4) 80.6 (14.4) 85.9 (19.5) I–II, I–III
 Creatinine, mg/dL
  Patients 1.01 (0.14) 1.01 (0.20) 0.99 (0.18) ns
  Controls 0.83 (0.13) 0.91 (0.16) 0.97 (0.22) I–II, I–III
 GFR, mL/min/1.73 m2
  Patients 69.9 (8.9) 73.3 (17.1) 72.8 (16.4) ns
  Controls 80.0 (13.8) 76.9 (14.5) 72.9 (16.3) ns
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg
  Patients 132 (19) 138 (15) 138 (17) I–III
  Controls 124 (18) 129 (18) 139 (13) I–III
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg
  Patients 76 (8) 79 (9) 77 (8) ns
  Controls 71 (9) 76 (11) 80 (8) I–II, I–III
Echocardiography
 LA, mm/m2
  Patients 20.2 (2.3) 20.5 (2.3) 20.4 (2.3) ns
  Controls 20.9 (2.5) 20.5 (4.0) 19.6 (3.0) ns
 LVEDV, mL/m2
  Patients 50.2 (9.2) 48.9 (9.4) 46.6 (13.0) ns
  Controls 50.2 (9.2) 48.9 (9.4) 46.6 (9.9) ns
 LV mass, g/m2
  Patients 96.7 (20.6) 102.0 (22.5) 107.1 (26.4) I–III
  Controls 89.9 (16.9) 100.3 (22.9) 101.5 (32.4) I–II
 LVEF, %
  Patients 57 (8) 53 (8) 49 (9) I–II, I–III, II–III
  Controls 58 (6) 55 (7) 54 (8) I–II, I–III
 MAPSE, mm
  Patients 13 (2) 12 (2) 12 (2) I–II, I–III
  Controls 13 (2) 12 (2) 12 (2) ns
 GLS, %
  Patients − 18.6 (2.3) − 17.5 (2.3) − 16.2 (3.0) I–II, I–III, II–III
  Controls − 22.3 (3.0) − 20.8 (3.1) − 19.6 (4.0) I–II, I–III
 E/é
  Patients 11.9 (3.2) 14.0 (3.8) 14.7 (3.8) I–II, I–III, II–III
  Controls 10.3 (2.7) 11.3 (3.7) 12.5 (4.0) I–III
  1. Values are mean (standard deviation) values for continuous variables and numbers (percent) for proportions. LA, LVEDV and LV mass are indexed by body surface area. See abbreviations as in Tables 1 and 2