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Table 4 Relationships between echocardiographic variables and baseline characteristics in controls, results from univariable and multivariable regression analysis

From: Overweight and obesity impair left ventricular systolic function as measured by left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain

Explanatory variable LV mass LVEF GLS E/é
Univariable Multivariable model R2 = 0.19 Univariable Multivariable model R2 = 0.09 Univariable Multivariable model R2 = 0.16 Univariable Multivariable model R2 = 0.22
β1, R2 B β1, R2 B β1, R2 B β1, R2 B
Demographic data
 Age, years 0.4, 0.01   − 0.03, 0.00   0.02, 0.00   0.21***, 0.12 0.2***
 Gender = female − 15.0***, 0.11 − 10.9** 1.9, 0.02   − 1.5**, 0.05 − 1.0 0.5, 0.00 1.5**
 Smoker/former smoker 2.1, 0.00   − 0.03, 0.00   0.38, 0.01   0.20, 0.00  
 BMI, kg/m2 0.8, 0.21   − 0.56***, 0.08 − 0.6*** 0.27***, 0.01 0.2*** 0.26***, 0.08  
Medical history
 Angina pectoris 2.9, 0.00   − 1.0, 0.00   − 0.85, 0.00   3.2, 0.02  
 Myocardial infarction 11.4, 0.01   − 2.0, 0.00   1.2, 0.00   − 0.46, 0.00  
 Coronary revascularization 10.1, 0.00   0.8, 0.00   − 0.49, 0.00   − 3.3*, 0.02  
 Hypertension 10.4*, 0.04   − 1.9, 0.01   0.86, 0.01   0.50, 0.00  
Medication
 Statins 12.6*, 0.03 12.9* − 3.3, 0.02   1.1, 0.01   − 0.02, 0.00  
 ACEI and/or ARB 8.3, 0.02   − 2.2, 0.01   1.2, 0.01   − 0.44, 0.00  
 Calcium channel blocker 15.6*, 0.03   0.5, 0.00   − 0.81, 0.00   0.53, 0.00  
 β-Blocker 5.6, 0.01   − 1.0, 0.00   0.55, 0.00   0.13, 0.00  
Laboratory analyses
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 0.9, 0.00   0.06, 0.00   0.01*, 0.00   − 13, 0.00  
 LDL-C, mmol/L − 1.9, 0.00   0.34, 0.00   0.36, 0.01   0.40, 0.01  
 Microalbuminuria 10.5, 0.01   − 14.8, 0.00   11.3, 0.00   3.5*, 0.04  
 Creatinine, µmol/L 0.3*, 0.03   − 0.08, 0.00   0.09, 0.02   0.05, 0.01  
 GFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 0.1, 0.00   0.04, 0.01   0.00, 0.00   − 0.03, 0.02  
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic blood pressure 0.4***, 0.09 0.3** − 0.03, 0.01   0.02, 0.01   0.06***, 0.09  
 Diastolic blood pressure 0.6**, 0.08   − 0.1, 0.02   0.08***, 0.07 0.2** 0.10***, 0.08 0.1***
  1. Results from univariable regression Y = β0 + β1 *X + ε. Results are presented as estimated regression parameters β1 and p-values (* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 and *** p < 0.001) for parameters and R2. Hypothesis tested H0: β0 and β1 = 0 against H1: β0 and β1 ≠ 0. Note that the β0 term is not presented in the table. Final results of multivariable linear regression analysis Y = Β X + ε of LV mass, LVEF and E/é. B is the estimated vector of regression parameters in the multivariable model. ε represents the error-term in the model. Results are presented as estimated regression parameters, p-values for the parameters, and R2, the explained proportion of variation in the outcome variable by the explanatory variables. LV mass are indexed by body surface area. See abbreviations as in Table 1 and 2