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Table 4 Clinical features of type 2 diabetic patients with visceral fat accumulation and low muscle quality

From: Low muscle quality in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with visceral fat accumulation

  Visceral fat accumulation (−) group Visceral fat accumulation (+) group
Muscle quality p value Muscle quality p value
High group Low group High group Low group
n (males/females) 36 (25/11) 18 (8/10) 0.087a 56 (46/10) 73 (47/26) 0.030 a
Age (years) 65.5 ± 11.4 74.3 ± 7.7 0.005 61.4 ± 13.3 64.4 ± 12.5 0.192
Duration of diabetes (years) 5 (0–30) 20 (8–29) 0.344 5 (1–13) 12 (6–21) 0.007
BMI (kg/m2) 20.0 ± 2.4 21.5 ± 2.7 0.040 26.5 ± 3.8 27.9 ± 4.0 0.042
WC (cm) 79.3 ± 6.7 83.3 ± 8.5 0.066 97.8 ± 10.3 100.5 ± 10.5 0.125
eVFA (cm2) 63.3 ± 21.7 75.1 ± 21.5 0.067 164.8 ± 39.7 168.9 ± 40.0 0.565
Grip strength (kg) 24.8 ± 7.7 13.4 ± 5.4 <0.001 30.9 ± 8.0 20.0 ± 7.8 <0.001
Skeletal mass index (kg/m2) 6.3 ± 0.9 6.0 ± 0.9 0.213 7.4 ± 0.9 7.4 ± 1.2 0.945
Systolic BP (mmHg) 131.7 ± 24.1 140.0 ± 22.2 0.224 130.2 ± 15.3 130.9 ± 18.6 0.831
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 77.0 ± 11.5 72.9 ± 9.4 0.196 77.8 ± 11.0 76.0 ± 13.4 0.414
HbA1c (%) 9.6 ± 2.2 10.1 ± 3.5 0.605 9.9 ± 1.9 9.2 ± 1.7 0.032
Serum C-peptide (ng/ml) 1.2 ± 0.8 1.9 ± 1.8 0.058 2.0 ± 1.4 1.9 ± 1.2 0.679
ALT (U/l) 29.2 ± 37.6 21.1 ± 12.8 0.380 35.2 ± 26.3 31.5 ± 33.8 0.580
UA (mg/dl) 4.5 ± 1.6 5.0 ± 1.6 0.355 5.6 ± 1.3 5.4 ± 1.6 0.394
eGFR (ml/min) 76.8 ± 31.9 57.0 ± 26.5 0.027 72.9 ± 26.0 61.1 ± 26.6 0.016
HDL-C (mg/dl) 57.3 ± 23.1 47.9 ± 17.4 0.135 45.0 ± 13.3 41.1 ± 12.5 0.090
TG (mg/dl) 123 (82–173) 116 (82–167) 0.890 187 (127–267) 152 (113–213) 0.077
LDL-C (mg/dl) 101.7 ± 33.9 91.1 ± 38.5 0.306 119.4 ± 38.3 102.7 ± 34.4 0.011
hs-CRP (mg/dl) 0.1 (0.0–0.2) 0.2 (0.1–0.6) 0.153 0.1 (0.1–0.4) 0.1 (0.1–0.4) 0.301
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 11.3 (7.3–16.9) 8.2 (6.5–15.7) 0.878 5.3 (3.7–8.2) 6.6 (4.8–10.6) 0.009
BNP (pg/ml) 22.4 (15.0–59.5) 28.0 (15.1–49.9) 0.302 10.7 (4.9–21.7) 16.4 (8.1–29.8) 0.726
CCA max IMT (mm) 0.8 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.8 0.013 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.4 0.505
PWV (m/s) 1791 ± 463 2051 ± 370 0.054 1744 ± 329 1814 ± 358 0.262
MCV (m/s) 50.2 ± 3.7 48.3 ± 4.1 0.100 50.8 ± 3.9 48.5 ± 4.9 0.003
Hypertension 58% 72% 0.382a 64% 75% 0.180a
Hyperuricemia 17% 17% 1.000a 30% 30% 1.000a
Dyslipidemia 72% 89% 0.298a 91% 89% 0.775a
Fatty liver 33% 28% 0.764a 76% (41/54) 65% (47/72) 0.241a
Cardiovascular disease 33% 61% 0.080a 18% 41% 0.007 a
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, or median (interquartile range), or frequency % (number of subjects). Unpaired t test was used between low muscle quality group vs high muscle quality group
  2. aFisher’s exact test (low muscle quality group vs high muscle quality group)