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Fig. 4 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 4

From: Glycemic control by the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin decreases aortic stiffness, renal resistivity index and kidney injury

Fig. 4

Empagliflozin suppresses advanced glycation end products (AGE), restores endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and reduces interstitial and periarterial nitroso-oxidative stress. a Representative micrographs show AGE expression in renal arterioles, assessed by immunofluorescence labeling. The accompanying bar graphs show a semi-quantitative analysis of average immunofluorescence intensities obtained from five randomly selected arterioles (n = 9–11/group). b Western blot analysis shows changes in expression of phospho-eNOSser1177, phospho-eNOST495, and GAPDH. The bar graphs to the right show quantitative analyses of protein expression of these serine (1177) and threonine (495) phosphorylated eNOS proteins normalized to GAPDH. Representative micrographs show 3-nitrotyrosine immunostaining in the (c) interstitium and (d) periarteriolar regions of the kidney (magnification = 4× and 40×, respectively). The accompanying bar graphs show a semi-quantitative analysis of average immunofluorescence staining intensities obtained from five randomly selected areas (n = 6/group). *p < 0.05 vs. CkC; p < 0.05 vs. DbC. All values are mean ± SE

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