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Table 5 Comparison of baroreflex sensitivity according to subgroups

From: Visit-to-visit HbA1c variability is inversely related to baroreflex sensitivity independently of HbA1c value in type 2 diabetes

Subgroup No (%) HbA1c CV (%) p value HbA1c SD (%) p value Adjusted HbA1c SD (%) p value BRS (msec/mmHg) p value
Sex    0.140   0.186   0.181   0.550
 Male 39 (68) 0.053 (0.032–0.082)   0.37 (0.23–0.66)   0.36 (0.23–0.64)   7.7 ± 2.7  
 Female 18 (32) 0.040 (0.021–0.070)   0.29 (0.13–0.59)   0.27 (0.13–0.57)   7.3 ± 2.8  
Hypertension    0.088   0.107   0.095   0.011
 Yes 42 (74) 0.055 (0.032–0.090)   0.40 (0.24–0.67)   0.39 (0.23–0.64)   7.0 ± 2.5*  
 No 15 (26) 0.032 (0.026–0.059)   0.21 (0.17–0.62)   0.20 (0.16–0.59)   9.1 ± 2.9  
Dyslipidemia    0.585   0.694   0.713   0.903
 Yes 51 (89) 0.049 (0.029–0.089)   0.33 (0.18–0.66)   0.31 (0.18–0.64)   7.6 ± 2.6  
 No 6 (11) 0.051 (0.024–0.060)   0.33 (0.15–0.51)   0.32 (0.14–0.49)   7.7 ± 3.7  
Insulin use    0.422   0.233   0.223   0.655
 Yes 6 (11) 0.061 (0.042–0.091)   0.54 (0.32–0.83)   0.52 (0.31–0.80)   7.1 ± 3.8  
 No 51 (89) 0.048 (0.028–0.082)   0.32 (0.18–0.63)   0.31 (0.17–0.59)   7.6 ± 2.6  
Sulfonylurea use    0.043   0.018   0.015   0.028
 Yes 17 (30) 0.065 (0.035–0.103)*   0.60 (0.26–0.88)*   0.59 (0.25–0.85)*   6.4 ± 2.1*  
 No 40 (70) 0.047 (0.025–0.065)   0.32 (0.16–0.47)   0.30 (0.16–0.46)   8.1 ± 2.8  
Statin use    0.108   0.132   0.124   0.035
 Yes 20 (35) 0.062 (0.041–0.105)   0.45 (0.27–0.80)   0.44 (0.26–0.76)   6.6 ± 2.6*  
 No 37 (65) 0.047 (0.027–0.065)   0.32 (0.17–0.51)   0.30 (0.16–0.49)   8.1 ± 2.6  
RAAS inhibitor use    0.635   0.600   0.544   0.526
 Yes 22 (39) 0.049 (0.032–0.069)   0.35 (0.24–0.52)   0.34 (0.23–0.50)   7.3 ± 2.6  
 No 35 (61) 0.049 (0.027–0.089)   0.32 (0.17–0.63)   0.30 (0.17–0.60)   7.8 ± 2.8  
CCB use    0.272   0.349   0.324   0.241
 Yes 24 (42) 0.062 (0.030–0.087)   0.44 (0.24–0.65)   0.43 (0.23–0.63)   7.1 ± 2.4  
 No 33 (58) 0.045 (0.028–0.080)   0.31 (0.18–0.63)   0.30 (0.17–0.59)   7.9 ± 2.9  
Beta-blocker use    0.902   1.000   0.989   0.462
 Yes 5 (9) 0.048 (0.027–0.085)   0.33 (0.20–0.71)   0.32 (0.19–0.69)   8.4 ± 3.7  
 No 52 (91) 0.050 (0.028–0.081)   0.33 (0.18–0.63)   0.31 (0.17–0.60)   7.5 ± 2.6  
  1. Values are mean ± SD, median (25th–75th percentiles) or no. (%)
  2. BRS baroreflex sensitivity, CV coefficient of variation, SD standard deviation, RAAS renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, CCB calcium-channel blocker
  3. * p value corresponds to the Student’s t test or the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U-test