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Table 2 Risk factors associated with cardiovascular outcomes of interest

From: Burden of cardiovascular risk factors and disease among patients with type 1 diabetes: results of the Australian National Diabetes Audit (ANDA)

Variables Univariable analyses Multivariable analyses
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value ROC 95% CI
Cardiovascular disease (composite)
 Female sex 0.50 (0.35–0.71) < 0.001 0.90 (0.46–1.78) 0.764 0.88 0.84–0.92
 Age (years) 1.08 (1.07–1.09) < 0.001 1.06 (1.03–1.09) < 0.001
 Diabetes duration group 1.12 (1.09–1.15) < 0.001 1.05 (1.01–1.10) 0.018
 HbA1c (%) 1.04 (0.95–1.15) 0.386   
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.36 (0.21–0.62) < 0.001 0.43 (0.21–0.90) 0.025
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 1.03 (1.02–1.04) < 0.001   
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.073 0.96 (0.93–1.00) 0.048
 BMI categories 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.937   
 Ever smoked 3.39 (2.32–4.95) < 0.001 2.40 (1.26–4.58) 0.008
 Albuminuria 2.30 (1.49–3.56) < 0.001   
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.96 (0.96–0.97) < 0.001   
 Antihypertensive Rx 9.74 (6.54–14.49) < 0.001 2.44 (1.15–5.18) 0.020
 Lipid lowering Rx 10.13 (6.76–15.17) < 0.001   
 Retinopathy 5.07 (3.53–7.28) < 0.001     
Stroke
 Female sex 0.33 (0.15–0.72) 0.006 0.49 (0.16–1.47) 0.201 0.81 0.74–0.88
 Age (years) 1.06 (1.04–1.09) < 0.001 1.05 (1.01–1.08) 0.006
 Diabetes duration group 1.08 (1.03–1.12) < 0.001   
 HbA1c (%) 1.17 (0.99–1.38) 0.062   
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.26 (0.09–0.77) 0.015   
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 0.016   
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 1.00 (0.97–1.04) 0.928   
 BMI categories 1.02 (0.96–1.10) 0.514   
 Ever smoked 2.32 (1.10–4.92) 0.027   
 Albuminuria 2.27 (0.97–5.31) 0.059   
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.97 (0.96–0.99) < 0.001 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 0.030
 Antihypertensive Rx 7.85 (3.47–17.74) < 0.001   
 Lipid lowering Rx 7.54 (3.35–16.95) < 0.001     
 Retinopathy 3.87 (1.88–7.96) < 0.001     
Myocardial infarction
 Female sex 0.41 (0.23–0.72) 0.002 0.97 (0.39–2.41) 0.943 0.90 0.87–0.94
 Age (years) 1.08 (1.06–1.10) < 0.001 1.09 (1.05–1.13) < 0.001
 Diabetes duration group 1.12 (1.08–1.17) < 0.001   
 HbA1c (%) 0.96 (0.82–1.13) 0.647   
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.24 (0.10–0.58) 0.002 0.20 (0.06–0.68) 0.010
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 1.03 (1.02–1.05) < 0.001   
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 1.01 (0.98–1.03) 0.707   
 BMI categories 1.01 (0.95–1.06) 0.842   
 Ever smoked 2.31 (1.30–4.10) 0.004   
 Albuminuria 2.20 (1.15–4.21) 0.017   
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.97 (0.96–0.98) < 0.001   
 Antihypertensive Rx 23.91 (10.12–56.49) < 0.001 5.06 (1.38–18.54) 0.014
 Lipid lowering Rx 18.21 (8.14–40.73) < 0.001   
 Retinopathy 3.67 (2.12–6.35) < 0.001     
Coronary artery bypass graft/angioplasty
 Female sex 0.38 (0.22–0.68) 0.001 0.93 (0.34–2.52) 0.884 0.92 0.89-0.95
 Age (years) 1.09 (1.07–1.12) < 0.001 1.08 (1.03–1.13) 0.001
 Diabetes duration group 1.21 (1.13–1.30) < 0.001   
 HbA1c (%) 0.96 (0.81–1.12) 0.586   
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.27 (0.11–0.67) 0.005 0.23 (0.06–0.92) 0.038
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 1.03 (1.01–1.04) < 0.001   
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 0.98 (0.96–1.01) 0.171   
 BMI categories 1.03 (0.98–1.09) 0.263   
 Ever smoked 2.18 (1.25–3.81) 0.006   
 Albuminuria 1.82 (0.93–3.59) 0.082   
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.97 (0.96–0.98) < 0.001   
 Antihypertensive Rx 38.63 (13.83–107.88) < 0.001 8.96 (1.12–71.54) 0.039
 Lipid lowering Rx 36.00 (12.91–100.41) < 0.001   
 Retinopathy 4.45 (2.57–7.69) < 0.001     
Peripheral vascular disease
 Female sex 0.73 (0.46–1.16) 0.180 1.08 (0.49–2.39) 0.851 0.85 0.81–0.90
 Age (years) 1.07 (1.05–1.09) < 0.001 1.04 (1.01–1.07) 0.005
 Diabetes duration group 1.11 (1.08–1.15) < 0.001   
 HbA1c (%) 1.09 (0.96–1.24) 0.171   
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.37 (0.18–0.77) 0.008   
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 1.02 (1.01–1.04) < 0.001   
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 0.97 (0.95–0.99) 0.009   
 BMI categories 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 0.653   
 Ever smoked 3.67 (2.22–6.08) < 0.001   
 Albuminuria 2.97 (1.65–5.34) < 0.001   
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.96 (0.95–0.97) < 0.001 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 0.002
 Antihypertensive Rx 5.26 (3.25–8.53) < 0.001   
 Lipid lowering Rx 5.22 (3.21–8.46) < 0.001   
 Retinopathy 6.41 (3.95–10.41) < 0.001 2.47 (1.06–5.74) 0.036   
Congestive cardiac failure
 Female sex 1.00 (0.36–2.78) 0.964 1.51 (0.30–7.47) 0.614 0.90 0.84–0.95
 Age (years) 1.10 (1.06–1.14) < 0.001 1.15 (1.05–1.25) 0.002
 Diabetes duration group 1.16 (1.05–1.29) 0.004   
 HbA1c (%) 0.97 (0.70–1.34) 0.858   
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.68 (0.90–3.16) 0.104   
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 0.157   
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 0.97 (0.92–1.02) 0.195   
 BMI categories 1.20 (1.05–1.38) 0.008   
 Ever smoked 1.40 (0.50–3.90) 0.515   
 Albuminuria 5.30 (1.36–20.70) 0.016   
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.95 (0.94–0.97) < 0.001   
 Antihypertensive Rx 37.42 (4.90–285.81) < 0.001   
 Lipid Lowering Rx 6.70 (2.12–21.21) 0.001   
 Retinopathy 20.75 (4.65–92.51) < 0.001    
  1. Rx: treatment