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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in patients with stable coronary artery disease and chronic total occlusion with mild, intermediate and severe stenosis of donor artery

From: Donor artery stenosis interactions with diastolic blood pressure on coronary collateral flow in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic total occlusion

Variables Diabetes (n = 220) Non-diabetes (n = 220)
Mild (n = 99) Moderate (n = 75) Severe (n = 46) P value Mild (n = 132) Moderate (n = 60) Severe (n = 28) P value
Male, n (%) 94 (94.9) 59 (78.7) 24 (52.2) < 0.001 127 (96.2) 40 (66.7) 14 (50.0) < 0.001
Age, years 57.9 ± 11.7 67.9 ± 10.7 73.7 ± 9.3 < 0.001 61.3 ± 12.1 68.0 ± 9.3 74.6 ± 12.4 < 0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2 25.4 ± 2.5 25.5 ± 2.6 25.9 ± 2.1 0.605 25.0 ± 2.5 25.0 ± 1.9 25.7 ± 2.4 0.294
Hypertension, n (%) 102 (77.3) 37 (61.7) 7 (25.0) < 0.001 91 (91.9) 42 (56.0) 11 (23.9) < 0.001
History of dyslipidemia, n (%) 23 (17.4) 25 (41.7) 14 (50.0) < 0.001 2 (2.0) 20 (26.7) 26 (56.5) < 0.001
Smoking, n (%) 27 (27.3) 26 (34.7) 21 (45.7) 0.090 43 (32.6) 18 (30.0) 15 (53.6) 0.072
History of MI, n (%) 19 (19.2) 16 (21.3) 19 (41.3) 0.012 19 (14.4) 12 (20.0) 10 (35.7) 0.030
Severity of CAD, n (%) < 0.001     < 0.001
 1-vessel 39 (39.4) 2 (2.7) 0 (0.0) < 0.001 51 (38.6) 5 (8.3) 5 (17.9) < 0.001
 2-vessel 35 (35.4) 21 (28.0) 17 (37.0) 0.493 55 (41.7) 17 (28.3) 7 (25.0) 0.089
 3-vessel 25 (25.2) 52 (69.3) 29 (63.0) < 0.001 26 (19.7) 38 (63.3) 16 (57.1) < 0.001
 Multivessel disease 60 (60.6) 73 (97.3) 46 (100.0) < 0.001 81 (61.4) 55 (91.7) 23 (82.1) < 0.001
Stenosis of PCDA, % 37.6 ± 8.5 58.9 ± 5.3 83.4 ± 8.5 < 0.001 33.5 ± 10.5 58.9 ± 5.4 82.6 ± 8.4 < 0.001
Fast blood glucose, mmol/L 6.3 ± 1.9 6.9 ± 2.2 6.5 ± 2.7 0.214 5.0 ± 0.7 4.7 ± 0.7 5.3 ± 0.6 < 0.001
HbA1c, % 7.2 ± 1.2 7.4 ± 1.5 7.1 ± 1.3 0.555 5.7 ± 0.4 5.7 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.4 0.980
Triglyceride, mmol/L 1.55 ± 0.72 1.62 ± 0.63 1.68 ± 0.81 0.538 1.42 ± 0.71 1.45 ± 0.83 1.60 ± 0.71 0.521
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 3.75 ± 1.04 4.11 ± 1.12 4.29 ± 1.04 0.009 4.11 ± 1.34 3.89 ± 1.45 4.08 ± 0.88 0.571
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 0.94 ± 0.20 0.99 ± 0.28 0.99 ± 0.16 0.312 1.01 ± 0.27 0.96 ± 0.19 1.00 ± 0.34 0.469
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 2.23 ± 0.90 2.47 ± 0.93 2.71 ± 0.87 0.010 2.49 ± 1.05 2.45 ± 1.11 2.40 ± 0.84 0.891
Serum creatinine, μmol/L 85 ± 21 90 ± 30 110 ± 32 < 0.001 77 ± 14 94 ± 27 102 ± 29 < 0.001
Uric acid, μmol/L 322 ± 79 315 ± 61 331 ± 76 0.515 337 ± 72 319 ± 96 339 ± 69 0.309
GFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 86.8 ± 18.5 75.5 ± 24.9 55.9 ± 20.6 < 0.001 90.3 ± 15.8 70.7 ± 20.2 59.6 ± 21.8 < 0.001
hsCRP, mg/L 1.58 (0.66–3.32) 2.46 (1.21–7.55) 4.23 (1.44–17.15) 0.031 0.97 (0.25–3.13) 1.20 (0.27–10.35) 2.66 (0.42–25.82) < 0.001
LVEF, % 60.5 ± 8.3 60.4 ± 9.3 54.7 ± 10.7 0.001 62.3 ± 9.0 61.3 ± 9.5 57.2 ± 12.8 0.042
Medication, n (%)
 ACE inhibitors/ARBs 53 (53.5) 42 (56.0) 26 (56.5) 0.924 50 (37.9) 20 (33.3) 11 (39.3) 0.798
 β blockers 41 (41.4) 30 (40.0) 20 (43.5) 0.931 51 (38.6) 25 (41.7) 15 (53.6) 0.345
 Calcium channel blockers 30 (30.3) 23 (30.7) 12 (26.1) 0.845 41 (31.1) 13 (21.7) 8 (28.6) 0.406
 Nitrates 57 (57.6) 41 (54.7) 24 (52.2) 0.819 59 (44.7) 32 (53.3) 16 (57.1) 0.339
 Statins 69 (69.7) 59 (78.7) 36 (78.3) 0.328 77 (58.3) 33 (55.0) 12 (42.9) 0.325
 Anti-diabetic therapy 58 (58.6) 60 (80.0) 40 (87.0) < 0.001 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Aortic blood pressure, mmHg
 Systolic 150.2 ± 26.2 147.3 ± 23.4 141.2 ± 24.8 0.130 150.2 ± 29.2 147.0 ± 28.2 141.0 ± 17.9 0.260
 Diastolic 77.1 ± 9.8 74.9 ± 9.4 73.5 ± 10.8 0.093 78.1 ± 13.2 75.9 ± 9.7 75.6 ± 11.5 0.388
 Mean 101.5 ± 13.2 99.0 ± 11.8 96.1 ± 13.5 0.057 101.2 ± 14.7 101 ± 12.9 97.4 ± 7.7 0.407
Pd, mmHg 52.1 ± 9.4 39.6 ± 11.0 32.5 ± 10.2 < 0.001 53.6 ± 7.1 48.3 ± 8.6 35.6 ± 7.8 < 0.001
Collateral flow index 0.49 ± 0.09 0.36 ± 0.10 0.29 ± 0.09 < 0.001 0.51 ± 0.08 0.45 ± 0.08 0.35 ± 0.08 < 0.001
  1. Data are mean ± SD or median (25th–75th percentiles) or number (%)
  2. ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CAD coronary artery disease, GFR glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, HDL high-density lipoprotein, hsCRP high-sensitivity C reactive protein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MI myocardial infarction, PCDA predominant collateral donor artery, Pd mean pressure distal to occlusion