Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of patients with T2DM and their matched non-diabetic controls separately for each ethnic group

From: Prevalence and incidence of complications at diagnosis of T2DM and during follow-up by BMI and ethnicity: a matched case–control analysis

  White European (296,288) African-Caribbean (16,958) South Asian (28,380) Overall n (341,626)
T2DM Control T2DM Control T2DM Control T2DM Control
Patientsa 60,233 (20) 236,055 (80) 3425 (20) 13,533 (80) 5778 (20) 22,602 (80) 69,436 (20) 272,190 (80)
Age at index (years)b 58 (58.2, 58.4) 58 (58.3, 58.4) 49 (48.2, 49.0) 49 (48.4, 48.8) 47 (46.3, 46.9) 47 (46.4, 46.7) 57 (56.8, 57.0) 57 (56.8, 56.9)
Age groupsa
 18–40 4530 (8) 17,912 (8) 744 (22) 2932 (22) 1707 (30) 6685 (30) 6981 (10) 27,529 (10)
 41–50 11,297 (19) 44,306 (19) 1278 (37) 5063 (37) 2097 (36) 8196 (36) 14,672 (21) 57,565 (21)
 51–60 16,552 (28) 65,033 (28) 843 (25) 3326 (25) 1217 (21) 4767 (21) 18,612 (27) 73,126 (27)
 61–70 17,010 (28) 66,485 (28) 415 (12) 1641 (12) 559 (10) 2185 (10) 17,984 (26) 70,311 (26)
 71+ 10,844 (18) 42,319 (18) 145 (4) 571 (4) 198 (3) 769 (3) 11,187 (16) 43,659 (16)
Malea 34,342 (57) 134,630 (57) 1778 (52) 7040 (52) 3232 (56) 1,2631 (56) 39,352 (57) 154,301 (57)
Current smokersa 12,830 (21) 46,926 (20) 449 (13) 1984 (15) 820 (14) 2839 (13) 14,099 (20) 51,749 (19)
Ex-smokersa 23,196 (39) 80,860 (34) 614 (18) 2066 (15) 756 (13) 2605 (12) 24,566 (35) 85,531 (31)
Deprivation status
 Highest affluencea 12,856 (21) 41,726 (18) 833 (24) 3548 (26) 1483 (26) 5586 (25) 15,172 (22) 50,860 (19)
 Lowest affluencea 2500 (4) 11,462 (5) 457 (13) 1595 (12) 518 (9) 1989 (9) 3475 (5) 15,046 (6)
HbA1c (%),bd 8.2 (8.2, 8.2)   9.1 (9.0, 9.2)   8.5 (8.4, 8.6)   8.3 (8.3, 8.3)  
Weight (kg)b 92.9 (92.8, 93.1) 78.7 (78.5, 78.8) 88.7 (87.9, 89.4) 81.6 (81.0, 82.1) 79.2 (78.7, 79.8) 72.2 (71.8, 72.5) 91.7 (91.5, 91.9) 78.3 (78.2, 78.4)
BMI (kg/m2)b 32.6 (32.6, 32.7) 27.8 (27.8, 27.8) 31.5 (31.3, 31.7) 28.2 (28.1, 28.2) 29.6 (29.5, 29.8) 26.3 (26.3, 26.4) 32.3 (32.3, 32.4) 27.7 (27.7, 27.7)
Normal weighta 4242 (7) 29,128 (12) 359 (11) 1174 (9) 360 (6) 1517 (7) 4961 (7) 31,819 (12)
Overweighta 14,446 (24) 178,671 (76) 842 (25) 10,611 (78) 1505 (26) 16,750 (74) 16,793 (24) 206,032 (76)
Obesea 41,545 (69) 28,256 (12) 2224 (65) 1748 (13) 3913 (68) 4335 (19) 47,682 (69) 34,339 (13)
SBP (mmHg)b 140 (139.7, 140) 136 (135.6, 135.8) 136 (135.7, 137.2) 133 (132.3, 133.3) 132 (131.0, 132.1) 128 (127.7, 128.5) 139 (138.9, 139.2) 135 (135, 135.2)
SBP ≥ 140 mmHga 24,571 (41) 46,081 (20) 1029 (30) 1624 (12) 1302 (23) 1926 (9) 26,902 (39) 49,631 (18)
LDL (mg/dl)b 119 (118.6, 119) 122.3 (122.2, 122.3) 127 (126.4, 128.3) 128.7 (128.4, 128.9) 121 (120.3, 121.8) 123.9 (123.7, 124.1) 119 (119.2, 119.6) 122.7 (122.7, 122.8)
HDL (mg/dl)b 46 (45.6, 45.8) 55 (55.3, 55.4) 48 (47.4, 48.2) 57 (56.4, 56.6) 43 (43.1, 43.6) 51 (51.3, 51.5) 46 (45.5, 45.7) 55 (55.0,55.1)
Triglycerides (mg/dl)c 159 (121, 213) 115 (88, 159) 115 (81, 159) 82 (62, 115) 151 (115, 204) 115 (89, 168) 159 (115, 213) 115 (84, 159)
Comorbidities 18,014 (30) 46,449 (20) 382 (11) 963 (7) 647 (11) 1741 (8) 19,043 (27) 49,153 (18)
Cardio-protective drugsa
 Beta blockers 17,042 (28) 38,032 (16) 393 (12) 1041 (8) 710 (12) 1783 (8) 18,145 (26) 40,856 (15)
 Calcium blockers 13,736 (23) 27,188 (12) 694 (20) 1535 (11) 673 (12) 1283 (6) 15,103 (22) 30,006 (11)
 Statins 18,971 (32) 33,604 (14) 620 (18) 794 (6) 1205 (21) 1618 (7) 20,796 (30) 36,016 (13)
 ACE inhibitors 16,165 (27) 27,922 (12) 532 (16) 857 (6) 793 (14) 1290 (6) 17,490 (25) 30,069 (11)
Follow-upc 7.0 (4, 11) 8.0 (4, 11) 7.0 (4, 10) 7.0 (4, 10) 6.0 (3, 10) 7.0 (4, 10) 7.0 (4, 11) 7.0 (4, 11)
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme; SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure; LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Comorbidities pre-existing cardiovascular (myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, angina, or coronary heart disease) or non-cardiovascular disease (renal diseases including chronic kidney disease, cancer, or depression) at the time of diagnosis
  2. an (%)
  3. bMean (95% CI)
  4. cMedian (Q1, Q3)
  5. dNot presented for non-diabetic controls