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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in this meta-analysis

From: Exercise training and endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis

Study, country Agea, year BMIa, kg/m2 Descriptions of intervention and control groups Duration, weeks Cuff pressure, mmHg Results on FMDb
A. Exercise training and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes
 (i) Aerobic exercise
  Choi et al. 2012 [16]; Korea 53.8 26.8 in average Intervention: 60 min/session of walking at moderate intensity, 5 times/week 12 250 mmHg No change
55.0 26.8 in average Control: maintained usual activities and were required not to exercise
  Kwon et al. [17]; Koreac 55.5 26.7 Intervention: 60 min/session of walking at moderate intensity, 5 times/week 12 250 mmHg Increase
58.9 27 Control: maintained usual activities and were required not to exercise
  Mitranun et al. [18]; Thailandc 61.2 29.6 Intervention: 20–30 min/session of walking or running consisted of 4–6 intervals of 1 min exercise at 80–85% VO2peak with a 4 min exercise at 50–60% VO2peak, 3 times/week 12 50 mmHg over SBP Increase
60.9 29.7 Control: maintained sedentary as previous
  Mitranun et al. [18]; Thailandc 61.7 29.4 Intervention: 20–30 min/session of walking or running at 60–65% VO2peak, 3 times/week 12 50 mmHg over SBP Increase
60.9 29.7 Control: maintained sedentary as previous
  Wycherley et al. 2008 [19]; Australia 51.7 33.6 Intervention: 25–60 min/session of walking or jogging at intensity increasing from 60 to 80% HRmax, 4–5 times/week, plus a moderate energy-restricted dietary programme 12 200 mmHg No change
53.0 34.6 Control: a moderate energy-restricted dietary program as intervention
 (ii) Aerobic combined with resistance exercise
  Gibbs et al. 2012 [20]; USA 58 32.3 Intervention: 45 min of aerobic exercise at 60–90% HRmax, along with 7 weight training exercises with two sets of 12–15 repetitions at 50% of 1-repetition maximum for each session, 3 times/week, plus usual care 26 > 200 mmHg No change
56 33.5 Control: usual care
  Maiorana et al. 2001 [21]; Australia 52 NS Intervention: 60 min/session (15 exercises) of combined aerobic exercise (riding/walking) at 70–85% HRmax and resistance training at 55–65% MVC, with training intensity and duration gradually increased, 3 times/week, 8 250 mmHg Increase
52 NS Control: were not required to exercise
  Naylor et al. 2016 [22]; Australia 17.3 36.1 Intervention: 60 min/session of combined aerobic exercise at 65–85% HRmax and resistance training at 55–70% MVC, with training volume gradually increased, 3 times/week, plus standard care 12 220 mmHg No change
15.3 30.0 Control: standard care
  Okada et al. 2010 [23]; Japan 61.9 25.7 Intervention: 20 min of aerobic dancing, 20 min of bicycle riding, and 20 min of resistance training for each session, 3–5 times/week, plus usual care 12 220 mmHg No change
64.5 24.5 Control: usual care
(iii) Resistance exercise
  Kwon et al. [17]; Koreac 56.3 27.4 Intervention: 40 min of resistance bands exercise at gradually increased intensities, three sets of 10–15 exercises for each session, 3 times/week 12 250 mmHg No change
58.9 27 Control: maintained usual activities and were not required to exercise
(iv) Interval versus continuous aerobic exercise
  Hollekim-Strand et al. 2014 [24]; Norway 58.6 30.2 Interval: 25 min/session of walking or jogging consisted of four intervals of 4 min exercise at 90–95% HRmax with a 3 min exercise at 70% HRmax, 3 times/week 12 NS Increase
54.7 29.7 Continuous: 210 min/week of home-based moderate intensity exercise
  Mitranun et al. [18]; Thailandc 61.2 29.6 Interval: 20–30 min/session of walking or running consisted of 4–6 intervals of 1 min exercise at 80–85% VO2peak with a 4 min exercise at 50–60% VO2peak, 3 times/week 12 50 mmHg over SBP No change
61.7 29.4 Continuous: 20–30 min/session of walking or running at 60–65% VO2peak, 3 times/week
(v) Aerobic versus resistance exercise
  Kwon et al. [17]; Koreac 55.5 26.7 Aerobic: 60 min/session of walking at moderate intensity, 5 times/week 12 250 mmHg No change
56.3 27.4 Resistance: 40 min of resistance bands exercise at gradually increased intensities, 3 sets of 10–15 exercises for each session, 3 times/week
B. Exercise training and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes versus non-diabetes
 Allen et al. [31]; USA 66 27 Diabetics: 30–40 min/session of walking, with intensities gradually increased from the one set to the workload resulting in claudication pain during maximal treadmill test, 3 times/week 12 240 mmHg NA
69 25 Non-diabetics: the same as diabetics
 Madsen et al. [32]; Denmark 56 31.1 Diabetics: 20 min/session of cycling consisted of 10 intervals of 1 min exercise at 65–69% HRmax with a 1 min active recovery exercise, 3 times/week 8 ≥220 mmHg NA
52 30.5 Non-diabetics: the same as diabetics
 Schreuder et al. [33]; Netherlands 59 32.4 Diabetics: 55 min/session of a circuit of resistance exercises (six exercises, 3 series of 12 repetitions for each exercise) interspersed with aerobic exercise (cycling/running, 5 min for each) at 70–75% HRR, with intensities gradually increased, 3 times/week 8 220 mmHg NA
58 26.9 Non-diabetics: the same as diabetics
  1. BMI body mass index, FMD flow-mediated dilation, VO 2peak peak oxygen uptake, HR max maximum heart rate, MVC maximal voluntary contraction, HRR heart rate reserve, NA not applicable
  2. a They represented the baseline mean data for each group
  3. b It represented the results on the comparisons between intervention and control groups
  4. c Both studies allowed for three independent comparisons for each [17, 18]