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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for participants in the continuous care intervention (CCI) and usual care (UC) groups

From: Cardiovascular disease risk factor responses to a type 2 diabetes care model including nutritional ketosis induced by sustained carbohydrate restriction at 1 year: an open label, non-randomized, controlled study

  All Completers with data
N Mean (SD) or ± SE N Mean (SD) or ± SE
Age (years)
 CCI-all educationa 262 54 (8) 218 54 (8)
 Usual carea 87 52 (10) 78 52 (10)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   1 ± 1   2 ± 1*
Female (%)
 CCI-all educationa 262 66.8 ± 2.9 218 65.1 ± 3.2
 Usual carea 87 58.6 ± 5.3 78 60.3 ± 5.5
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   8.2 ± 6.0   4.9 ± 6.4
Smokers (%)
 CCI-all educationa 211 3.8 ± 1.3 176 4.0 ± 1.5
 Usual carea 87 14.9 ± 3.8 78 14.1 ± 3.9
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   − 11.2 ± 4.0   − 10.1 ± 4.2*
Weight-clinic (kg)
 CCI-all educationa 257 116.5 (25.9) 184 115.4 (24.6)
 Usual carea 83 105.6 (22.2) 69 106.8 (22.2)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   10.9 ± 2.9   8.6 ± 3.2
BMI (kg m−2)
 CCI-all educationa 257 40.4 (8.8) 184 39.9 (7.9)
 Usual carea 83 36.7 (7.3) 69 37.1 (7.6)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   3.7 ± 1.0   2.7 ± 1.1
Hemoglobin A1c (%)
 CCI-all educationa 262 7.60 (1.50) 204 7.49 (1.40)
 Usual carea 87 7.64 (1.76) 72 7.74 (1.82)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −0.04 ± 0.21   −0.25 ± 0.24
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 CCI-all educationa 260 132 (14) 187 133 (15)
 Usual carea 79 130 (14) 67 129 (13)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   2 ± 2   4 ± 2*
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 CCI-all educationa 260 82 (8) 187 82 (8)
 Usual carea 79 82 (9) 67 81 (8)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   0 ± 1   0 ± 1
ApoB (mg dL−1)
 CCI-all educationa 248 105 (29) 186 103 (28)
 Usual carea 79 107 (28) 59 106 (30)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −2 ± 4   −2
ApoA1 (mg dL−1)
 CCI-all educationa 248 146 (28) 185 146 (29)
 Usual carea 79 149 (22) 59 148 (21)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −3 ± 3   −2 ± 3
ApoB/ApoA1 ratio
 CCI-all educationa 248 0.74 (0.23) 185 0.73 (0.23)
 Usual carea 79 0.73 (0.23) 59 0.73 (0.25)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   0.01 ± 0.03   0.00 ± 0.04
Triglycerides (mg dL−1)
 CCI-all educationa 247 197 (143) 186 201 (153)
 Usual carea 79 283 (401) 59 297 (458)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −86 ± 46*   −97 ± 61
LDL-C (mg dL−1)
 CCI-all educationa 232 103 (33) 172 100 (33)
 Usual carea 70 102 (36) 48 100 (38)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   1 ± 5   0 ± 6
HDL-C (mg dL−1)
 CCI-all educationa 247 42 (13) 186 42 (14)
 Usual carea 79 38 (11) 59 37 (11)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   5 ± 2   5 ± 2
Triglycerides/HDL-C ratio
 CCI-all educationa 247 5.9 (7.1) 186 6.1 (7.9)
 Usual carea 79 10.5 (23.2) 59 11.5 (26.5)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −4.6 ± 2.6   −5.4 ± 3.5
Large VLDL-P (nmol L−1)
 CCI-all educationa 259 10 (8) 203 9 (8)
 Usual carea 83 12 (12) 68 12 (13)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −2 ± 1   −2 ± 2
Total LDL-P (nmol L−1)
 CCI-all educationa 259 1300 (465) 203 1296 (476)
 Usual carea 83 1289 (511) 68 1243 (484)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   11 ± 63   52 ± 68
Small LDL-P (nmol L−1)
 CCI-all educationa 259 774 (377) 203 778 (378)
 Usual carea 83 719 (322) 68 699 (326)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   55 ± 42   789 ± 48
LDL-particle size (nm)
 CCI-all educationa 259 20.30 (0.55) 201 20.3 (0.55)
 Usual carea 83 20.33 (0.56) 68 20.32 (0.55)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −0.03 ± 0.07   −0.03 ± 0.08
Total HDL-P (μmol L−1)
 CCI-all educationa 259 31.3 (6.4) 203 31.7 (6.4)
 Usual carea 83 29.9 (5.8) 68 30.2 (6.0)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   1.4 ± 0.8   1.5 ± 0.9
Large HDL-P (μmol L−1)
 CCI-all educationa 259 4.3 (2.5) 203 4.2 (2.5)
 Usual carea 83 3.8 (2.1) 68 3.8 (2.1)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   0.4 ± 0.3   0.4 ± 0.3
LP-IR score
 CCI-all educationa 259 72 (17) 203 72 (18)
 Usual carea 83 75 (16) 68 74 (17)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −3 ± 2   −2 ± 2
C-reactive protein (mg L−1)
 CCI-all educationa 249 8.5 (14.5) 193 9.0 (16.1)
 Usual carea 85 8.9 (8.6) 70 9.1 (9.0)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −0.3 ± 1.3   −0.1 ± 1.6
WBC
 CCI-all educationa 260 7.2 (1.9) 204 7.1 (1.8)
 Usual carea 86 8.1 (2.4) 72 8.3 (2.4)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −0.9 ± 0.3   −1.2 ± 0.3§
10-year ASCVD risk (%)
 CCI-all educationa 198 11.1 (9.1) 135 12.1 (9.3)
 Usual carea 72 11.8 (10.8) 55 11.4 (10.8)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −0.6 ± 1.4   0.8 ± 1.6
CIMT-average (mm)
 CCI-all educationa 236 0.681 (0.108) 144 0.692 (0.113)
 Usual carea 84 0.681 (0.116) 68 0.680 (0.111)
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −0.001 ± 0.014   0.013 ± 0.016
Statin (%)
 CCI-all educationa 262 50.0 ± 3.1 218 51.8 ± 3.4
 Usual carea 87 58.6 ± 5.3 73 54.8 ± 5.8
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   −8.6 ± 6.1   −3.0 ± 6.7
Any antihypertensive medication (%)
 CCI-all educationa 262 67.2 ± 2.9 218 68.4 ± 3.2
 Usual carea 87 52.9 ± 5.4 73 50.7 ± 5.9
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   14.3 ± 6.1*   17.7 ± 6.7
ACE or ARB (%)
 CCI-all educationa 262 29.4 ± 2.8 218 28.0 ± 3.0
 Usual carea 87 18.4 ± 4.2 73 16.4 ± 4.3
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   11.0 ± 5.0*   11.5 ± 5.3*
Diuretics (%)
 CCI-all educationa 262 40.8 ± 3.0 218 41.3 ± 3.3
 Usual carea 87 29.9 ± 4.9 73 24.7 ± 5.0
 CCI-all vs. usual careb   11.0 ± 5.8   16.6 ± 6.1
  1. Significant baseline difference between means or percentages are designated by the following symbols: * 0.05 > P ≥ 0.01, 0.01 > P ≥ 0.001, 0.001 > P ≥ 0.0001, §P < 0.0001
  2. a Mean and standard deviations for continuous variables, percents and standard errors for categorical variables
  3. b Difference between means or percentages ± 1 standard error of the difference