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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants

From: Effects of background statin therapy on glycemic response and cardiovascular events following initiation of insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: a large UK cohort study

  Statin use None Total p value
(n = 10,682) (n = 2043) (n = 12,725)
Demographics
 Age (years). mean (SD) 59.4 (12.7) 54.3 (18.2) 58.6 (13.8) <0.001
Gender. no. (%)
 Female 5258 (49) 1122 (55) 6380 (50) <0.001
Smoking status. no (%)
 Non-smoker 5549 (52) 1137 (56) 6686 (52)  
 Ex-smoker 3634 (34) 543 (27) 4177 (33) <0.001
 Current 1499 (14) 363 (18) 1862 (15)  
Alcohol status. no (%)
 Never 3431 (32) 614 (30) 4045 (32)  
 Ex-drinker 1133 (11) 320 (16) 1453 (11) <0.001
 Current 6118 (57) 1109 (54) 7227 (57)  
Deprivation. no (%)
 Least deprived 2151 (21) 403 (21) 2554 (20)  
 Second quintile 2089 (20) 382 (20) 2471 (19)  
 Third quintile 2255 (22) 422 (22) 2677 (21) 0.631
 Fourth quintile 2171 (21) 399 (21) 2570 (20)  
 Most deprived 1591 (16) 327 (17) 1918 (15)  
Clinical parameters. mean (SD)
 HbA1c (%) 8.7 (1.8) 8.7 (2.0) 8.7 (1.8) 0.556
 BMI (kg/m2) 32.7 (6.9) 32.8 (7.2) 32.7 (6.9) 0.252
 Diabetes durationa (years) 4.0 (4.9) 2.5 (4.3) 3.8 (4.9) <0.001
 Time on insulin (years) 3.7 (6.3) 2.3 (6.0) 3.5 (6.3) <0.001
 Height (m) 1.7 (0.1) 1.7 (0.1) 1.7 (0.1) 0.860
 Weight (kg) 91.4 (18.8) 91.9 (19.1) 91.5 (18.8) 0.268
 DBP (mmHg) 76.5 (10.8) 76.9 (11.1) 76.6 (10.9) 0.129
 SBP (mmHg) 136.4 (23.0) 134.6 (23.4) 136.1 (23.1) 0.002
 Albumin (g/L) 4.1 (0.4) 4.0 (0.4) 4.1 (0.4) 0.002
 ACR (mg/mol) 5.7 (8.4) 5.2 (8.5) 5.6 (8.5) 0.014
 eGFR (mLs/min/1.73 m2) 64.6 (21.0) 68.0 (22.0) 65.1 (21.2) <0.001
 TC. (mmol/L) 4.6 (1.3) 4.7 (1.4) 4.6 (1.3) <0.001
 Triglyceride (mmol/L) 2.0 (1.2) 2.0 (1.2) 2.0 (1.2) 0.072
 LDL (mmol/L) 2.4 (1.1) 2.5 (1.1) 2.4 (1.1) <0.001
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.3 (0.5) 1.3 (0.5) 1.3 (0.5) 0.225
BMI categories, no. (%)
 Normal 1371 (13) 294 (14) 1665 (13)  
 Overweight 2533 (24) 489 (24) 3022 (24) 0.131
 Obese 6778 (63) 1260 (62) 8038 (63)  
Use of medications, no. (%)
 Aspirin 10,481 (95) 1541 (94) 12,022 (94) 0.723
 Antihypertensives 9321 (87) 1217 (91) 10,538 (83) <0.001
GLTsb no (%)
 Dual Therapy 2334 (22) 904 (44) 3238 (28)  
 Triple Therapy 3400 (33) 609 (30) 4009 (33) <0.001
 More than triple therapy 4948 (45) 669 (26) 5478 (39)  
Comorbidities, no. (%)
 Hypoglycaemia 1824 (17) 313 (15) 2137 (17) 0.052
 Heart failure 641 (6) 72 (4) 713 (6) <0.001
 PAD 756 (7) 67 (3) 823 (7) <0.001
 CHD 1390 (13) 75 (4) 1465 (12) <0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c haemoglobin A1c, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, TC total cholesterol, GFR glomerular filtration rate, LLT lipid lowering therapy, PAD peripheral arterial disease, CHD coronary heart disease, ACR albumin creatinine ratio, SD standard deviation
  2. aDiabetes duration is time from first diagnosis of diabetes to date of insulin initiation
  3. bGLTs (Glucose lowering therapies) denote the number of GLTs ever recorded for patients within the study duration and not the current regimen