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Table 3 Univariate and multiple linear regression models for serum NGAL (A) and MMP-9/NGAL (B, log-transformed) concentrations in the total cohort

From: Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is elevated in type 2 diabetics with carotid artery stenosis and reduced under metformin treatment

  Univariate models Multiple model
β ± SEa p β ± SEa p
(A)
 BMI −0.21 ± 1.01 0.832 0.42 ± 0.67 0.532
 Creatinine (rank-transformed) 0.32 ± 0.10 0.002 0.14 ± 0.07 0.056
 Neutrophils (log-transformed) 35.9 ± 12.1 0.003 4.4 ± 8.6 0.609
 Plaque ultrasound   <0.0001   0.004
 “calcified/hard”vs. “soft” −59.3 ± 7.3   −18.4 ± 7.6  
 “mixed” vs. “soft” −55.5 ± 9.2   −26.1 ± 8.0  
 Histological classification   <0.0001   <0.0001
 Type VI vs. type V 56.6 ± 7.5   33.0 ± 7.3  
 Type VII vs. type V −21.7 ± 7.4   −18.8 ± 6.8  
 Symptomatic (yes vs. no) 27.8 ± 8.0 0.0007 12.9 ± 5.6 0.023
 T2DM (yes vs. no) 50.8 ± 6.9 <0.0001 29.1 ± 6.0 <0.0001
(B)
 BMI 0.03 ± 0.02 0.086 0.03 ± 0.02 0.100
 Creatinine (rank-transformed) −0.001 ± 0.0020 0.517 −0.002 ± 0.002 0.391
 Neutrophils (log-transformed) 0.89 ± 0.20 <0.0001 0.57 ± 0.22 0.010
 Plaque ultrasound   0.0004   0.257
 “calcified/hard”vs. “soft” −0.59 ± 0.15   −0.26 ± 0.19  
 “mixed” vs. “soft” −0.49 ± 0.19   −0.31 ± 0.20  
 Histological classification   0.004   0.196
 Type VI vs. type V 0.45 ± 0.17   0.27 ± 0.19  
 Type VII vs. type V −0.13 ± 0.17   −0.12 ± 0.17  
 Symptomatic (yes vs. no) −0.08 ± 0.15 0.602 −0.17 ± 0.14 0.239
 T2DM (yes vs. no) 0.34 ± 0.14 0.017 0.04 ± 0.15 0.801
  1. aRegression parameter (β) ± standard error (SE)