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Table 1 Baseline data of the study cohort (clinical characteristics, echocardiographic parameters, and drug therapy)

From: Multipolar pacing by cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillators treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus failing heart patients: impact on responders rate, and clinical outcomes

Variables Overall Multipolar group Bipolar group p value
Clinical characteristics
 Patients n 195 99 96  
 Age, years 67.4 ± 6.5 68.1 ± 6.6 66.9 ± 6.4 n.s
 Male, n (%) 144 (74%) 71 (72%) 73 (76%) n.s
 Smokers (%) 102 (52.3%) 52 (52.5%) 50 (52%) n.s
 Dyslipidemia (%) 102 (52%) 52 (53) 50 (52) n.s
 Obesity 12 (6.1%) 7 (7%) 5 (5.2%) n.s
 Hypertension 136 (69.7%) 71 (71.7%) 65 (67.7%) n.s
 Renal insufficiency (%) 18 (9.2%) 10 (10.1%) 8 (8.3%) n.s
 Ischemic HF (%) 128 (65.6%) 67 (68%) 61 (63.5%) n.s
 Non ischemic HF (idiopathic, hypertensive, or valvular) (%) 67 (34.4%) 32 (32.2%) 35 (36.4%) n.s
 Previous cardiac surgery (%) 35 (18%) 17 (18%) 18 (19%) n.s
 NYHA II (%) 102 (52.3%) 53 (53.5%) 50 (52%) n.s
 NYHA III (%) 93 (47.7%) 49 (49.5%) 44 (45.8%) n.s
 QRS duration 136.4 ± 7.8 137.3 ± 7.4 135.3 ± 8.1 n.s
 6MWT 244.1 ± 39.8 239.5 ± 44.7 248.7 ± 33.8 n.s
 NT-proBNP (pg/ml) 2307 ± 631 2322 ± 567 2281 ± 723 n.s
 Hb1Ac (mmol/mol) 57.8 ± 15.6 57.2 ± 15.3 58.2 ± 16.1 n.s
Echocardiographic parameters
 LVEDv (ml) 198 ± 39 196 ± 31 201 ± 45 n.s
 LVESv (ml) 137 ± 29 135 ± 23 141 ± 36 n.s
 LVEF (%) 27 ± 5 27 ± 5 28 ± 4 n.s
Mitral regurgitation
 + 91 (46.7%) 44 (44.4%) 47(49%) n.s
 ++ 77 (39.5%) 40 (40.4%) 37 (38.5%) n.s
 +++ 19 (9.7%) 9 (9.1%) 10 (10.4%) n.s
Drug therapy
 ACE-i/ARB 170 (87.2%) 86 (86.8%) 84 (87.5%) n.s
 Beta blockers 137 (70.3%) 70 (71%) 67 (69.8%) n.s
 Diuretics 117 (60%) 58 (58.6%) 59 (61.5%) n.s
 Digoxin 43 (22%) 21 (21.2%) 22 (22.9%) n.s
 Statins 113 (57.9%) 56 (56.6%) 57 (59.4%) n.s
 Insulin 72 (36.9%) 35 (35.3%) 37 (38.5%) n.s
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs 131 (67.2%) 68 (68.7%) 63 (66%) n.s
 Anti platelets drugs 130 (66.7%) 64 (63.6%) 65 (67.7%) n.s
 Dicumarolic anticoagulants 18 (9.2%) 9 (9%) 9 (9.4%) n.s
  1. In this table clinical characteristics, drug therapy and echocardiographic parameters have been reported, at baseline, of overall population, and then comparing multipolar vs bipolar group of patients. Statistical analysis has been conducted, to compare categorical data, with the exact Pearson’s Χ2 test. We considered a two-sided p value of less than 0.05 as statistically significant. The “n.s” was for statistical not significant (p value >0.05)
  2. ACE-i angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor II blockers, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, Hb1Ac glycosylated hemoglobin, y year, n number, LVEDv left ventricle end diastolic volume, LVESv left ventricle end systolic volume, LVEF left ventricle ejection fraction, 6MWT 6 min walking test, n is for number, NYHA New York Hearth Association, NOACs new oral anti coagulations drugs, n.sis not statistical significant (p value >0.05), NT-proBNP N terminal pro B type Natriuretic peptide, in mitral regurgitation the symbol +, ++, +++ indicating low grade (+), mild grade (++), and more than mild (+++) regurgitation grade