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Table 1 Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of participants remaining non-diabetic and those developing diabetes

From: Target organ damage and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Strong Heart Study

  No incident diabetes (n = 2590) Incident diabetes (n = 297) p≤*
Age (years) 44 ± 17 47 ± 15 0.101
Sex (% women) 60 61 0.662
Systolic BP (mmHg) 122 ± 17 127 ± 17 0.02
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 75 ± 11 78 ± 11 0.003
Heart rate (bpm) 68 ± 11 70 ± 11 0.02
Body mass index (kg/m2) 30 ± 7 35 ± 7 0.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 100 ± 16 113 ± 16 0.0001
GFRMDRD (mL/min/1.73 m2) 92 [78–108] 92 [79–109] 0.178
Cholesterol (mg/dL) 187 ± 37 187 ± 39 0.370
HDL-c (mg/dL) 50 ± 15 44 ± 14 0.0001
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 120 [86–171] 147 [107–196] 0.002
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 96 ± 13 109 ± 25 0.0001
Fasting insulin (mIU/mL) 11 [7–17] 21 [13–31] 0.0001
HOMA-R 2.6 [1.6–4.2] 5.2 [3.4–8.3] 0.0001
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 347 [304–399] 367 [322–427] 0.01
PAI-1 (mg/dL) 42 [26–65] 58 [38–93] 0.01
Fat-free mass (kg) 53 ± 12 59 ± 14 0.04
Adipose mass (kg) 35 ± 10 40 ± 8 0.0001
LVDD index (cm/m) 3.09 ± 0.25 3.16 ± 0.29 0.008
LV mass index (g/m2.7) 38.0 ± 8.8 42.2 ± 10.3 0.0001
Relative wall thicknessa 0.32 ± 0.05 0.33 ± 0.04 0.006
LAV index (mL/m2)b 11.4 ± 3.0 13.1 ± 3.0 0.0001
Ejection fraction (%) 63 ± 5 64 ± 5 0.2
Urinary albumin/creatinine 6.55 [4.22–12.08] 8.32 [4.95–16.56] 0.152
  1. BP blood pressure, GFR glomerular filtration rate, LV left ventricle, LVDD LV diastolic dimension, LA left atrium, LAV LA volume
  2. * Adjusted for initial glucose status and kinship coefficients (to account for family relatedness)
  3. † After log transformation. Medians and interquartile range are displayed
  4. aNormalized to age 46
  5. bIndexed for height to the second power