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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to the incidence of a cardiovascular event or death during follow-up

From: Plasma matrix metalloproteinases are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes: a 12-year follow-up study

  CVD event No CVD event p value Patients dead at follow-up n = 83 Patients alive at follow-up n = 254 p value
n = 86 n = 251
Age (years) 44.5 (9.0) 40.4 (9.6) 0.001 45.3 (10.0) 40.2 (9.2) <0.001
Sex: male/female (%) 62/38 60/40 0.81 69/31 58/42 0.081
Duration of diabetes (years) 30.7 (8.7) 26.7 (7.5) <0.001 30.2 (9.9) 26.9 (7.1) 0.006
HbA1c (%) 9.5 (1.5) 8.9 (1.4) <0.001 9.6 (1.5) 8.8 (1.4) <0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 80.5 (16.3) 73.4 (15.0) <0.001 81.6 (16.5) 73.1 (14.8) <0.001
Nephropathy (%) 76 42 <0.001 78 41 <0.001
Retinopathy (no/simplex/proliferative) (%) 8/37/55 20/45/35 0.002 6/37/57 21/45/34 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.9 (3.3) 23.9 (2.8) 0.919 23.7 (3.2) 23.9 (2.8) 0.513
LDL (mmol/l) 3.64 (1.01) 3.00 (0.95) <0.001 3.60 (0.98) 3.02 (0.97) <0.001
HDL (mmol/l) 1.43 (0.41) 1.54 (0.51) 0.082 1.53 (0.48) 1.51 (0.50) 0.791
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.25 [0.93–1.70] 0.81[0.63–1.19] <0.001 1.29 [0.90–1.69] 0.81 [0.64–1.18] <0.001
Serum creatinine (µmol/l) 92.1 [67–135] 70 [62–81] <0.001 94.0 [68–132] 69 [62–81] <0.001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 76.0 (31.6) 101 (21.5) <0.001 76.2 (30.9) 100.7 (22.2) <0.001
Urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 h) 658 [34–1983] 17 [7–532] <0.001 761 [96–2040] 17 [7–479] <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 157 (24) 136 (20) <0.001 159 (24) 136 (19) <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 85 (13) 80 (12) 0.001 87 (14) 79 (11) <0.001
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 109 (15) 98 (13) <0.001 111 (15) 98 (13) <0.001
RAAS-inhibitors (%) 52 21 <0.001 52 22 <0.001
Other antihypertensive medication (%) 64 29 <0.001 69 28 <0.001
Smoking (never/former/current) (%) 28/19/53 38/17/45 0.234 25/17/58 39/18/43 0.05
MMP-1 (ng/ml) 4.58 [2.78–7.17] 2.70 [1.67–4.71] <0.001 5.00 [2.74–7.03] 2.73 [1.68–4.68] <0.001
MMP-2 (ng/ml) 229 [201–273] 185 [162–225] <0.001 231 [201–281] 185 [161–225] <0.001
MMP-3 (ng/ml) 21.3 [13.0–28.3] 12.8 [8.6–21.3] <0.001 23.9 [16.6–29.6] 12.6 [8.5–20.2] <0.001
MMP-9 (ng/ml) 32.5 [20.4–65.3] 21.7 [14.5–36.9] <0.001 31.2 [20.7–63.6] 21.8 [14.3–37.0] <0.001
MMP-10 (pg/ml) 764 [618–1227] 640 [467–930] 0.002 809 [627–1235] 640 [463–916] <0.001
TIMP-1 (ng/ml) 210 [178–265] 161 [137–204] <0.001 221 [182–277] 159 [136–204] <0.001
sVCAM-1 (ng/ml) 1003 [842–1174] 905 [789–1105] 0.03 1038 [936–1239] 891 [789–1096] <0.001
sICAM-1 (ng/ml) 735 [628–835] 671 [572–814] 0.076 751 [632–882] 670 [569–797] 0.003
Endothelial dysfunction z-score 0.23 (0.92) −0.08 (1.02) 0.012 0.41 (0.98) −0.13 (0.97) <0.001
CRP (mg/l) 1.63 [0.64–3.24] 1.00 [0.42–2.15] 0.008 1.45 [0.60–3.30] 1.03 [0.45–2.18] 0.02
IL-6 (pg/ml) 2.18 [1.53–3.43] 1.52 [0.99–2.34] <0.001 2.41 [1.78–3.88] 1.45 [1.00–2.22] <0.001
sPLA2 (µg/ml) 4.40 [2.80–7.00] 4.00 [2.70–6.40] 0.421 4.00 [2.80–6.50] 4.05 [2.70–6.60] 0.821
Low-grade inflammation z-score 0.32 (0.86) −0.11 (1.02) <0.001 0.3 (0.96) −0.11 (0.99) <0.001
  1. Data are means (SD), medians [inter-quartile range] or percentages, as appropriate
  2. eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI); RAAS-inhibitors renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and spironolactone; MMP matrix metalloproteinase; TIMP-1 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1; sVCAM-1 soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; sICAM-1 soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1; CRP C-reactive protein; IL-6 interleukin-6; sPLA2 secreted phospholipase A2; Low-grade inflammation z-score z-score of the average of the z-scores of lnIL-6, lnCRP, sICAM-1, and lnsPLA2; Endothelial dysfunction z-score z-score of the average of the z-scores of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1