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Table 1 Clinical characteristics at baseline and at 12 weeks after the administration of luseogliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes

From: Luseogliflozin reduces epicardial fat accumulation in patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study

  Baseline 12 weeks p values
Age (years) 55 ± 12   
Gender (% female) 26   
SBP (mmHg) 137 ± 14 128 ± 15 0.035
DBP (mmHg) 83 ± 7 80 ± 7 0.023
Body weight (kg) 82.2 ± 11.4 79.5 ± 11.5 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 28.7 ± 2.7 27.8 ± 2.9 < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 101 ± 8 99 ± 8 0.067
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 57.9 ± 5.4 50.9 ± 4.5 <0.001
HbA1c (%) 7.5 ± 0.7 6.8 ± 0.6 <0.001
Plasma glucose (mmol/l) 7.6 ± 2.2 6.8 ± 1.6 0.026
Insulin (μU/ml) 8.9 (5.3–13.6) 8.1 (4.7–11.7) 0.030
HOMA-IR (N = 15) 3.6 (1.5–4.8) 2.6 (1.3–3.8) 0.006
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.67 (1.15–2.85) 1.10 (0.93–2.39) 0.044
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.38 ± 0.36 1.36 ± 0.33 0.605
LDL cholesterol(mmol/l) 2.89 ± 0.51 3.02 ± 0.66 0.267
AST (U/l) 24 (18–40) 23 (17–28) 0.075
ALT (U/l) 19 (17–43) 23 (18–30) 0.407
γ-GTP (U/l) 35 (23–80) 28 (19–59) 0.088
Estimated GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 69.7 ± 13.8 68.1 ± 13.3 0.407
Log urinary ACR (mg/g) 1.62 ± 0.55 1.56 ± 0.48 0.232
Uric acid (μmol/l) 351 ± 64 326 ± 91 0.107
Log CRP (mg/l) −0.01 ± 0.45 −0.10 ± 0.33 0.392
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 14.1 ± 3.3 15.3 ± 1.3 0.105
Hematocrit (%) 43.4 ± 3.1 45.7 ± 3.7 <0.001
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 8.8 ± 3.3 8.5 ± 3.4 0.233
Leptin (ng/ml) 13.9 ± 6.1 13.1 ± 6.8 0.377
Log Interleukin 6 (pg/ml) 0.30 ± 0.23 0.24 ± 0.26 0.278
EFV (cm3) 117 (96–136) 111 (88–134) 0.048
VFA (cm2) 167 (134–201) 151 (124–209) 0.811
SFA (cm2) 226 (184–273) 218 (178–240) 0.184
Liver attenuation index 1.03 ± 0.21 1.04 ± 0.22 0.670
Body fat (%) 36.9 ± 5.6 36.2 ± 6.0 0.027
Non-fat mass in upper extremities (kg) 5.7 ± 1.3 5.5 ± 1.3 0.012
Non-fat mass in lower extremities (kg) 16.8 ± 3.3 16.3 ± 3.4 0.012
Android (kg) 3.4 ± 1.4 2.9 ± 0.8 0.126
Gynoid (kg) 4.6 ± 1.8 3.8 ± 1.0 0.186
Total fat mass (kg) 29.3 ± 5.9 27.9 ± 6.3 <0.001
Total non-fat mass (kg) 50.4 ± 8.4 49.3 ± 8.4 0.003
Skeletal muscle index 7.81 ± 1.09 7.58 ± 1.11 0.004
  1. ACR albumin-to-creatinine ratio, ALT alanine transaminase, AST aspartate transaminase, CRP C-reactive protein, DBP diastolic blood pressure, EFV epicardial fat volume, GFR glomerular filtration ratio, GTP glutamyl transpeptidase, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance, LDL low-density lipoprotein, SBP systolic blood pressure, SFA subcutaneous fat area, VFA, visceral fat area