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Table 2 Relationship between sex-standardized betatrophin quartiles and cardiometabolic risk factors

From: Vitamin D modifies the associations between circulating betatrophin and cardiometabolic risk factors among youths at risk for metabolic syndrome

Parameters Betatrophin P value
Q1 (n = 138) Q2 (n = 139) Q3 (n = 138) Q4 (n = 138)
Male gender, n (%) 73 (52.9 %) 73 (52.5 %) 73 (52.9 %) 73 (52.9 %) /
Age (years) 20.5 ± 3.1 20.0 ± 2.8 19.8 ± 2.9 20.4 ± 2.9 0.170
Obesity traits
BMI (kg/m2) 25.5 ± 5.5 24.7 ± 5.2 25.9 ± 6.0 26.6 ± 5.9 0.051
WC (cm) 85.1 ± 13.8 83.1 ± 13.5 85.2 ± 15.5 87.3 ± 15.2 0.120
Percent body fat 30.1 ± 10.2 29.4 ± 9.5 30.2 ± 10.3 31.5 ± 10.4 0.346
Pressures (mm Hg)
SBP 115 ± 14.9 113 ± 12.1 115 ± 13.5 116 ± 15.5 0.331
DBP 72 ± 10.7 73 ± 10.5 72.9 ± 9.5 75 ± 11.3 0.402
Lipids (mmol/l)
TC 4.27 ± 0.82 4.19 ± 0.82 4.29 ± 0.79 4.65 ± 1.17*,+,$ <0.001
TG 0.98 ± 0.53 1.02 ± 0.44 1.17 ± 0.85* 1.37 ± 1.23*,+ <0.001
LDL-C 2.49 ± 0.71 2.40 ± 0.73 2.47 ± 0.66 2.77 ± 0.98*,+,$ <0.001
HDL-C 1.44 ± 0.29 1.42 ± 0.31 1.43 ± 0.35 1.45 ± 0.34 0.870
Glucose and insulin-related traits
Glucose0 (mmol/l) 4.86 ± 0.51 4.97 ± 1.12 4.89 ± 0.44 4.95 ± 0.48 0.495
Glucose30 (mmol/l) 7.79 ± 1.33 7.99 ± 1.80 7.91 ± 1.42 8.05 ± 1.43 0.545
Glucose120 (mmol/l) 5.92 ± 1.30 6.01 ± 2.68 6.18 ± 1.45 6.15 ± 1.65 0.631
HbA1c (%) 5.34 ± 0.37 5.42 ± 0.66 5.35 ± 0.36 5.40 ± 0.48 0.515
Insulin0 (mU/L)a 1.91 ± 0.71 1.88 ± 0.66 1.96 ± 0.74 1.98 ± 0.84 0.665
Insulin30 (mU/L)a 4.30 ± 0.72 4.20 ± 0.63 4.31 ± 0.76 4.20 ± 0.78 0.460
Insulin120 (mU/L)a 3.61 ± 0.79 3.53 ± 0.79 3.61 ± 0.70 3.65 ± 0.90 0.661
HOMA-IRa 0.37 ± 0.75 0.36 ± 0.70 0.43 ± 0.75 0.46 ± 0.87 0.636
ISI M a 1.79 ± 0.65 1.83 ± 0.58 1.77 ± 0.65 1.79 ± 0.72 0.872
IGIa 0.29 ± 0.84 0.16 ± 0.76 0.26 ± 0.83 0.16 ± 0.80 0.423
DIOa 2.09 ± 0.87 2.00 ± 0.79 2.02 ± 0.65 1.93 ± 0.77 0.436
Hepar and renal-related traits
AST (IU/L)a 2.91 ± 0.25 2.96 ± 0.35 2.94 ± 0.28 2.97 ± 0.39 0.412
ALT (IU/L)a 2.92 ± 0.49 2.94 ± 0.52 2.95 ± 0.53 3.04 ± 0.60 0.248
Creatinine (umol/L)a 4.17 ± 0.19 4.19 ± 0.23 4.19 ± 0.19 4.22 ± 0.28 0.333
Uric acid (umol/L)a 5.80 ± 0.26 5.83 ± 0.25 5.86 ± 0.30 5.88 ± 0.27 0.098
Adipokines
FGF21 (pg/ml)a 4.41 ± 1.00 4.34 ± 1.03 4.44 ± 1.16 4.41 ± 1.30 0.914
Adiponectin (μg/mL)a 1.88 ± 0.65 1.94 ± 0.57 1.90 ± 0.68 1.89 ± 0.75 0.885
Betatrophin (pg/ml)a 5.37 ± 0.15 5.66 ± 0.09* 5.82 ± 0.08*,+ 6.24 ± 0.43*,+,$ <0.001
Vitamin D (ng/ml)a 2.70 ± 0.36 2.70 ± 0.41 2.64 ± 0.35 2.53 ± 0.47*,+ 0.003
  1. Data were expressed as n (%), mean ± SD
  2. One-way ANOVA where differences versus quintile 1 are indicated as * P < 0.05, differences versus quintile 2 are indicated as + P < 0.05, differences versus quintile 3 are indicated as $ P < 0.05. Quartile values of betatrophin are expressed as Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 (pg/ml). For female: Q1, 127.5–41.8; Q2, 241.8–87.0; Q3, 287.0–56.9; Q4, 356.9–438.5. For male: Q1, 142.2–76.8; Q2, 276.8–29.3; Q3, 329.3–89.5; Q4, 389.5–475.6
  3. Values in italics are significant at P < 0.05
  4. BMI body mass index; WC waist circumference; SBP Systolic blood pressure; DBP Diastolic blood pressure; TC total cholesterol; TG triglycerides; LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance; ISIM insulin sensitivity Matsuda index; IGI insulinogenesis index; DIO oral disposition index; AST aspartate aminotransferase; ALT alanine aminotransferase; FGF21 fibroblast growth factor 21
  5. aSkewed distributions were natural logarithmically transformed. Vitamin D was adjusting for visiting season