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Table 3 Comparison of biochemical data and flow-mediated dilatation data between baseline and 6 months, and comparison of absolute change from baseline between the two groups

From: Effects of 6-month eicosapentaenoic acid treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin secretion ability, and concomitant endothelial dysfunction among newly-diagnosed impaired glucose metabolism patients with coronary artery disease. An open label, single blinded, prospective randomized controlled trial

Variable Non-EPA group (n = 53) EPA group (n = 54) P value
Baseline 6-month Baseline 6-month
Fasting PG (mg/dL) 111.2 ± 10.4 109.9 ± 10.8 105.8 ± 11.1 104.5 ± 9.1 0.001
 Absolute Δ −1.0 (−6.0, 4.0) −1.0 (−5.0, 4.0) 0.69
Hemoglobin A1c (NGSP; %) 6.1 ± 0.4 6.1 ± 0.4 6.0 ± 0.3 5.9 ± 0.4 0.02
 Absolute Δ 0.0 (−0.1, 0.13) 0.0 (−0.1, 0.10) 0.49
1,5-anhydro-glucitol (μg/mL) 16.5 ± 6.1 16.1 ± 6.4 18.5 ± 7.8 19.3 ± 8.0* 0.02
 Absolute Δ −0.6 (−1.8, 1.2) 0.9 (−0.8, 1.9) 0.03
Fasting IRI (µU/mL) 6.4 ± 3.3 6.1 ± 2.9 6.6 ± 3.4 6.5 ± 3.0 0.49
 Absolute Δ −0.1 (−1.4, 0.7) −0.2 (−2.0, 1.8) 0.63
HOMA-R 1.6 (1.0, 2.4) 1.6 (1.1, 2.0) 1.6 (1.0, 2.3) 1.6 (1.0, 2.2) 0.86
 Absolute Δ 0.0 (−0.4, 0.2) 0.0 (−0.5, 0.5) 0.67
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 171.7 ± 31.9 169.1 ± 27.7 171.8 ± 30.8 167.4 ± 29.4 0.76
 Absolute Δ −1.0 (−12.5, 8.5) −3.5 (−13.0, 7.0) 0.45
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 96.7 ± 25.1 95.5 ± 23.3 97.9 ± 27.6 92.5 ± 26.8** 0.53
 Absolute Δ 1.0 (−10.2, 8.0) −4.0 (−13.0, 3.0) 0.09
HDL-C (mg/dL) 48.2 ± 9.8 48.2 ± 11.6 46.7 ± 9.3 50.1 ± 13.2** 0.51
 Absolute Δ 0.0 (−4.3, 3.0) 2.0 (−3.0, 8.0) 0.05
TG (mg/dL) 123.3 ± 59.2 120.8 ± 62.2 137.8 ± 67.6 103.0 ± 38.1*** 0.10
 Absolute Δ −3.0 (−35.0, 19.0) −24.0 (−54.0, −3.0) 0.005
TG/HDL-C ratio 2.46 (1.43, 3.54) 2.18 (1.38, 3.54) 2.58 (1.65, 4.63) 2.02 (1.35, 2.65)*** 0.39
 Absolute Δ −0.04 (−0.72, 0.33) −0.73 (−1.44, −0.12) 0.0004
Remnant-like particle-cholesterol (mg/dL) 9.1 ± 6.1 8.4 ± 6.1 10.4 ± 6.4 7.3 ± 3.9*** 0.26
 Absolute Δ −1.0 (−3.1, 1.1) −1.7 (−4.8, −0.3) 0.07
EPA (μg/mL) 84.0 ± 50.7 81.1 ± 45.0 69.3 ± 40.7 196.4 ± 51.4*** <0.0001
 Absolute Δ −1.0 (−23.5, 24.0) 128.0 (98.0, 164.0) <0.0001
AA (μg/mL) 205.6 ± 55.3 201.2 ± 48.1 206.3 ± 52.6 177.0 ± 39.7*** 0.006
 Absolute Δ −2.0 (−34.8, 22.5) −30.0 (−52.0, −3.0) 0.001
Docosahexaenoic acid (μg/mL) 162.5 ± 64.6 152.2 ± 57.7 158.9 ± 70.0 134.2 ± 48.1** 0.08
 Absolute Δ −18.0 (−44.3, 15.8) −21.5 (−55.0, 12.0) 0.27
EPA/AA ratio 0.35 (0.25, 0.52) 0.36 (0.27, 0.46) 0.31 (0.21, 0.49) 1.08 (0.88, 1.45)*** <0.0001
 Absolute Δ −0.01 (−0.11, 0.10) 0.78 (0.52, 1.05) <0.0001
Docosahexaenoic acid/AA 0.75 (0.59, 1.02) 0.74 (0.63, 0.96) 0.78 (0.53, 0.97) 0.77 (0.56, 0.95) 0.92
 Absolute Δ −0.01 (−0.19, 0.11) −0.01 (−0.15, 0.11) 0.71
C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.09 (0.04, 0.14) 0.06 (0.04, 0.12) 0.10 (0.04, 0.22) 0.06 (0.03, 0.11)*** 0.55
 Absolute Δ −0.01 (−0.05, 0.02) −0.01 (−0.08, 0.00) 0.05
%FMD (%) 4.1 ± 1.8 4.0 ± 1.6 3.6 ± 1.7 5.2 ± 1.9*** 0.0005
 Absolute Δ 0.1 (−0.6, 0.8) 1.6 (0.7, 2.5) <0.0001
Rest brachial artery diameter (mm) 4.27 ± 0.55 4.23 ± 0.58 4.23 ± 0.60 4.23 ± 0.58 0.72
 Absolute change in brachial artery diameter (mm) 0.17 ± 0.07 0.17 ± 0.06 0.15 ± 0.07 0.22 ± 0.07*** 0.0005
 Absolute Δ 0.01 (−0.03, 0.03) 0.06 (0.02, 0.08) <0.0001
  1. P values represent comparison of each values between groups at 6 months except for absolute Δ
  2. As for absolute Δ of each values, P values represent comparison between the two groups
  3. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation or medians and interquartile ranges, as indicated
  4. PG plasma glucose, IRI immune reactive insulin, HOMA-R homeostasis model assessment ratio, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglyceride, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, AA arachidonic acid, FMD flow-mediated dilatation
  5.  P < 0.05 vs baseline values of non-EPA group
  6. * P < 0.05 vs baseline, ** P < 0.01 vs baseline, *** P < 0.0001 vs baseline