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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of study population by categories of DAL

From: Association between dietary acid load and the risk of cardiovascular disease: nationwide surveys (KNHANES 2008–2011)

  Tertiles of dietary DAL (mEq/day) P value*
T1 (n = 3900) T2 (n = 3839) T3 (n = 3826)
DAL (mEq/d)a 16.9 (−165.5 ~ 33.9) 36.1 (25.9 ~ 48.5) 51.9 (39.3 ~ 221.1) <0.001
PRAL (mEq/d) −27.5 ± 20.5 −2.2 ± 5.3 15.4 ± 13.4 <0.001
Magnesium (mg/d) 381.4 ± 187.5 284.0 ± 146.0 310.4 ± 177.0 <0.001
Age (year) 56.8 ± 10.5 57.4 ± 11.1 55.9 ± 10.9 <0.001
Male (%) 40.8 40.5 43.0 0.062
Waist circumference (cm) 81.7 ± 8.8 82.1 ± 9.1 84.4 ± 9.4 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.7 ± 2.9 23.7 ± 3.1 24.5 ± 3.2 <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120.5 ± 17.3 122.2 ± 18.3 121.9 ± 17.2 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76.1 ± 10.1 76.6 ± 10.5 77.6 ± 10.5 <0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 101.3 ± 27.7 100.4 ± 24.5 100.9 ± 24.5 0.268
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)b 193.0 ± 36.2 194.2 ± 36.8 194.5 ± 36.2 0.146
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)b 51.5 ± 12.4 51.3 ± 12.6 50.7 ± 12.3 0.031
Triglycerides (mg/dL)b 137.4 ± 110.9 142.8 ± 106.1 148.7 ± 118.9 <0.001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)b 118.7 ± 32.5 119.4 ± 32.8 119.0 ± 32.0 0.613
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.3 0.085
GFR, EPI (mL/min/1.73 m2) 88.3 ± 14.9 87.7 ± 15.1 88.8 ± 15.5 0.011
Insulin (μU/mL)b 9.5 ± 4.8 9.8 ± 5.8 10.3 ± 6.7 <0.001
HOMA-IRb 2.4 ± 1.8 2.5 ± 1.8 2.6 ± 2.6 <0.001
Urine pH 5.8 ± 0.9 5.7 ± 0.9 5.7 ± 0.8 0.001
Heavy drink (%) 12.1 13.9 17.8 <0.001
Current smoking (%) 15.7 17.4 20.3 <0.001
Exercise (%) 27.9 24.4 25.3 <0.001
Hypertension (%) 34.4 37.6 38.7 <0.001
IFG/diabetes (%) 22.8/13.3 24.0/13.2 25.9/13.0 0.918
Metabolic syndrome (%) 35.1 38.1 43.1 <0.001
Chronic kidney disease (%) 3.8 4.5 4.2 0.376
Region (Metro/City/rural,  %) 42.5/30.2/27.3 43.2/30.6/26.3 41.6/30.9/27.5 0.613
Family history of cardio- or cerebro-vascular disease (%) 6.5 6.6 6.6 0.984
  1. P < 0.05 by post hoc analyses when compared with lowest tertiles
  2. *Chi square tests for qualitative variables and ANOVA tests for quantitative variables
  3. PRAL potential renal acid load; DAL dietary acid load; BMI body mass index; HDL cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate; HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IFG impaired fasting glucose
  4. aValues are medians per tertile
  5. bLog-transformed