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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study population by categories of PRAL

From: Association between dietary acid load and the risk of cardiovascular disease: nationwide surveys (KNHANES 2008–2011)

  Tertiles of dietary PRAL (mEq/day) P value*
T1 (n = 3859) T2 (n = 3540) T3 (n = 4202)
PRAL (mEq/d)a −21.8 (−199.8 ~ −7.5) −2.9 (−11.3 ~ 8.2) 11.2 (−10.4 ~ 181.4) <0.001
DAL (mEq/d) 11.1 ± 20.8 35.9 ± 6.5 53.4 ± 14.6 <0.001
Magnesium (mg/d) 388.0 ± 186.4 278.1 ± 139.4 307.8 ± 177.2 <0.001
Age (year) 56.2 ± 10.3 57.1 ± 11.0 56.8 ± 11.2 0.001
Male (%) 41.4 41.3 41.8 0.881
Waist circumference (cm) 82.7 ± 9.0 82.5 ± 9.2 82.9 ± 9.3 0.255
BMI (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 3.0 23.9 ± 3.1 24.0 ± 3.1 0.041
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120.4 ± 17.2 122.1 ± 18.0 122.2 ± 17.6 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76.3 ± 10.1 76.8 ± 10.6 77.2 ± 10.5 0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 101.4 ± 27.5 100.5 ± 23.3 100.6 ± 24.9 0.213
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)b 193.2 ± 36.1 194.1 ± 36.7 194.3 ± 36.5 0.436
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)b 51.1 ± 12.3 51.1 ± 12.6 51.2 ± 12.5 0.842
Triglycerides (mg/dL)b 138.8 ± 102.7 145.5 ± 119.8 144.7 ± 113.5 0.004
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)b 119.0 ± 32.4 119.2 ± 32.6 119.0 ± 32.3 0.043
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.3 0.903
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 88.3 ± 14.9 87.9 ± 15.0 88.5 ± 15.5 0.193
Insulin (ųU/mL)b 9.8 ± 5.2 9.8 ± 5.9 10.0 ± 6.5 0.807
HOMA-IRb 2.5 ± 1.9 2.5 ± 1.8 2.5 ± 2.5 0.962
Urine pH 5.8 ± 0.9 5.7 ± 0.9 5.7 ± 0.8 0.013
Heavy drink (%) 12.3 14.1 17.0 <0.001
Current smoking (%) 15.4 17.8 20.0 <0.001
Exercise (%) 28.3 24.6 24.6 <0.001
Hypertension (%) 34.4 37.9 38.5 <0.001
IFG/Diabetes (%) 23.3/13.4 24.2/13.4 25.0/12.7 0.427
Metabolic syndrome (%) 37.1 38.8 40.2 0.014
Chronic kidney disease (%) 3.8 4.3 4.5 0.263
Region (Metro/City/Rural,  %) 43.3/30.2/26.5 42.3/31.5/26.3 41.7/30.2/28.1 0.237
Family history of cardio- or cerebro-vascular disease (%) 6.6 6.3 6.7 0.811
  1. PRAL potential renal acid load; DAL dietary acid load; BMI body mass index; HDL cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate; HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IFG impaired fasting glucose
  2. P < 0.05 by post hoc analyses when compared with lowest tertiles
  3. *Chi square tests for qualitative variables and ANOVA tests for quantitative variables
  4. aValues are medians per tertile
  5. bLog-transformed