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Table 2 Effects of commonly used medications on the lipid profile

From: Common medications used by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: what are their effects on the lipid profile?

Medication type/class Compound TGs HDL-C LDL-C Reference(s)
Antihyperglycemic
 Biguanide Metformin Slight ↑ [23, 44]
 TZD Pioglitazone [23, 38, 44]
Rosiglitazone [23, 38, 44]
 SU Glibenclamide ↓/↔ ↓/↔ [23, 44]
Gliclazide [23, 44]
Glimepiride [23, 44]
 DPP-4 inhibitor Sitagliptin [52]
Vildagliptin ↔/↓ [54, 58]
Saxagliptin [152]
Alogliptin [53]
 GLP-1 receptor agonist Exenatide [23, 65, 66]
Liraglutide [23, 66]
 SGLT2 inhibitor Canagliflozin [73]
Dapagliflozin [71]
Empagliflozin Slight ↑ [74]
 α-Glucosidase inhibitor Acarbose ↔/↓ ↔/↑ [37, 86, 87]
Miglitol [86]
 Dopamine D2 receptor agonist Bromocriptine-QR [83, 84]
 Bile acid sequestrant Colesevelam ↔/↑/↑↑ Slight ↑ ↓↓ [7779]
 Insulin   [44, 91]
Antihypertensive
 Thiazide diuretic   [95, 153]
 ACE inhibitor   ↔/↓ ↔/↑ ↔/↓ [101, 102, 104, 154]
 ARB   ↑/↔a [95, 105]
 Older-generation β-blocker e.g. propranolol [17, 41]
 Newer-generation β-blocker e.g. nebivolol [93, 108]
Anti-obesity      
Orlistat ↓/↔ ↓/↔ [110113]
Lorcaserin ↓/↔ ↑/↔ ↓/↔ [114117]
Phentermine/topiramate [122, 126128]
Naltrexone/bupropion ↓/↔ [118121, 123125]
Antibiotics      
Metronidazole [129, 130]
Ciprofloxacin [130]
Analgesic
 NSAIDs e.g. ibuprofen, naproxen [131, 134]
 Aspirin   [131, 134]
Contraceptive      
 Oral contraceptives with second-generation progestogens e.g. levonorgestrel [17, 141]
 Oral contraceptives with third-generation progestogens e.g. desogestrel [17, 141]
HRT
 Estrogen monotherapy   [143]
 Transdermal 17β-estradiol   [143]
 Oral estrogen/DMPA   [145, 146]
Other common medications      
 Glucocorticoids e.g. prednisone [95, 147]
 Vitamins Vitamin D Slight ↑ [148]
Vitamin B12 [149]
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) [150, 155]
PUFAs [151]
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, DMPA depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HRT hormone replacement therapy, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid, QR quick release, SGLT2 sodium glucose co-transporter 2, SU sulfonylurea, TG triglyceride, TZD thiazolidinedione
  2. a Variable depending on type
  3. ↑ denotes statistically significant increase; ↔ denotes no significant change; ↓ denotes statistically significant decrease; – denotes data not available