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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Effects of daily glucose fluctuations on the healing response to everolimus-eluting stent implantation as assessed using continuous glucose monitoring and optical coherence tomography

  Overall (n = 50) DM (n = 29) Non-DM (n = 21) P value (DM vs. non-DM)
Age (years) 70.1 ± 10.3 71.6 ± 8.8 68.0 ± 12.1 0.23
BMI (kg/m2) 24.2 ± 3.4 24.5 ± 3.0 23.8 ± 4.0 0.45
Male 43 (86.0) 24 (82.8) 19 (90.5) 0.36
DM 29 (58.0) 29 (100) 0 (0.0)
Hypertension 37 (74.0) 22 (75.9) 15 (71.4) 0.72
Dyslipidemia 44 (88.0) 27 (93.1) 17 (81.0) 0.19
Smoking 36 (72.0) 21 (72.4) 15 (71.4) 0.38
 Current 10 (20.0) 4 (13.8) 6 (28.6)  
 Former (quit >3 months) 26 (52.0) 17 (58.6) 9 (42.9)  
Prior myocardial infarction 12 (24.0) 6 (20.7) 6 (28.6) 0.52
Prior PCI 25 (50.0) 16 (55.2) 9 (42.9) 0.39
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 122.1 ± 11.8 122.1 ± 11.3 122.1 ± 12.7 0.99
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 63.3 ± 6.9 62.0 ± 6.5 65.2 ± 7.2 0.10
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%) 59.3 ± 10.2 61.7 ± 7.2 55.7 ± 13.0 0.082
Duration of DM (years) 3.4 ± 6.6 7.9 ± 1.5
HbA1c (NGSP) (%) 6.4 ± 0.9 6.8 ± 1.0 5.8 ± 0.3 <0.001
1,5-AG (μg/mL) 15.7 ± 7.7 13.2 ± 6.7 19.5 ± 7.6 0.004
Glycoalbumin (%) 16.5 ± 3.2 17.6 ± 3.5 14.8 ± 1.8 0.001
75-g OGTT     
 Fasting PG (mg/dL) 102 ± 21 111 ± 23 89 ± 8 <0.001
 2-h PG (mg/dL) 202 ± 79 249 ± 70 139 ± 33 <0.001
 Fasting IRI (μU/mL) 7.4 ± 6.0 7.9 ± 7.2 6.7 ± 4.0 0.49
 2-h IRI (μU/mL) 103 ± 106 111 ± 118 91 ± 86 0.53
HOMA R 2.0 ± 2.4 2.4 ± 3.1 1.5 ± 0.8 0.21
HOMA β 80.4 ± 59.7 63.6 ± 40.5 102.7 ± 73.6 0.036
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 157.0 ± 25.9 157.1 ± 23.6 156.8 ± 29.4 0.96
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 88.6 ± 18.1 90.2 ± 17.6 86.2 ± 18.9 0.44
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 45.8 ± 12.1 42.6 ± 10.0 50.1 ± 13.6 0.039
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 133.2 ± 53.5 152.55 ± 53.5 107.1 ± 38.6 0.002
CRP (mg/dL) 0.17 ± 0.28 0.14 ± 0.21 0.20 ± 0.34 0.47
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.98 ± 0.25 0.99 ± 0.24 0.96 ± 0.26 0.63
Medications during the study
 Aspirin 42 (84.0) 25 (86.2) 17 (81.0) 0.45
 Thienopyridine 23 (46.0) 13 (44.8) 10 (47.6) 0.85
 Statin 38 (76.0) 24 (82.8) 14 (66.7) 0.19
 EPA 4 (8.0) 2 (6.9) 2 (9.5) 0.56
 Ezetimibe 4 (8.0) 2 (6.9) 2 (9.5) 0.56
 Fibrate 1 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.8) 0.42
 ACE-I/ARB 27 (54.0) 15 (51.7) 12 (57.1) 0.70
 Beta-blocker 17 (34.0) 10 (34.5) 7 (33.3) 0.93
 Insulin 0 (0.0)    
 Metformin 2 (4.0) 2 (6.9) 0 (0.0) 0.33
 SU 7 (14.0) 7 (24.1) 0 (0.0) 0.016
 α-GI 3 (6.0) 3 (10.3) 0 (0.0) 0.19
 DPP4-I 9 (18.0) 9 (18.0) 0 (0.0) 0.004
Continuous glucose monitoring variables
 MAGE (mg/dL) 71 ± 33 80 ± 35 58 ± 28 0.018
 Mean BG (mg/dL) 128 ± 21 137 ± 24 116 ± 9 <0.001
 Max BG (mg/dL) 210 ± 42 226 ± 44 188 ± 27 <0.001
 Min BG (mg/dL) 72 ± 23 75 ± 27 70 ± 16 0.62
 Time in hyperglycemia (h) 23.2 ± 24.3 32.9 ± 27.4 9.1 ± 5.6 <0.001
 Time in hypoglycemia (h) 1.7 ± 3.0 1.9 ± 3.5 1.5 ± 2.2 0.62
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation or number (%). Time in hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia were defined as the time when blood glucose levels were >140 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL, respectively
  2. 1,5-AG 1,5 anhydroglucitol, 75 g OGTT 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, α-GI α-glucosidase inhibitor, ACE-I angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, BG blood glucose, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, DM diabetes mellitus, DPP4-I dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL cholesterol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA β homeostasis model assessment beta, HOMA R homeostasis model assessment ratio, IRI immunoreactive insulin, LDL cholesterol low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, MAG: mean amplitude of glycemic excursion, NGSP National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, PG plasma glucose, SU sulfonylureas