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Table 2 Distribution of anthropometric and biological variables according to birth weight, women, unadjusted

From: Low birth weight leads to obesity, diabetes and increased leptin levels in adults: the CoLaus study

  Birth weight categories (kg) p value
−2.5] (n = 174) ]2.5–3.5] (n = 891) ]3.5–4.0] (n = 264) ]4.0+ (n = 129)
Anthropometry
 Height (cm) 161 ± 1a 164 ± 1b 165 ± 1c 166 ± 1c <0.001
 Weight (kg) 64.7 ± 1.0a 64.6 ± 0.4a 69.2 ± 0.8b 69.9 ± 1.1b <0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 0.4a, b 24.1 ± 0.2a 25.4 ± 0.3b 25.5 ± 0.4b <0.001
 Waist circumference (cm) 83.7 ± 0.9a, b 80.8 ± 0.4a 83.4 ± 0.8b 84.6 ± 1.1b <0.001
 Fat (% of body weight) 34.4 ± 0.6a 32.3 ± 0.3b 33.5 ± 0.5a, b 34.1 ± 0.7a, b 0.002
 Fat mass (kg) 22.9 ± 0.7a, b 21.4 ± 0.3a 24.1 ± 0.6b 24.4 ± 0.8b <0.001
BMI categories (%)      <0.001
 Normal 98 (56.3) 592 (66.4) 150 (56.8) 67 (51.9)  
 Overweight 48 (27.6) 220 (24.7) 68 (25.8) 39 (30.2)  
 Obesity 28 (16.1) 79 (8.9) 46 (17.4) 23 (17.8)  
Abdominal obesity (%) 57 (32.8) 220 (24.7) 83 (31.4) 49 (38.0) 0.002
Adipokines
 Leptin (ng/dL) 18.1 ± 0.9 15.4 ± 0.4 16.9 ± 0.7 15.9 ± 1.1 0.230§
 Leptin/fat mass ratio 0.77 ± 0.04a 0.72 ± 0.02a, b 0.71 ± 0.03a, b 0.61 ± 0.04b 0.035
 Adiponectin (μg/dL) 11.8 ± 0.7 12.2 ± 0.3 11.9 ± 0.5 12.5 ± 0.8 0.612§
Markers of glucose homeostasis
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.46 ± 0.06a 5.24 ± 0.03b 5.28 ± 0.05a, b 5.30 ± 0.07a, b 0.013
 Fasting insulin (μU/mL) 8.5 ± 0.4 7.3 ± 0.2 8.4 ± 0.3 6.9 ± 0.5 0.003
 HOMA 2.10 ± 0.12 1.76 ± 0.05 2.05 ± 0.10 1.68 ± 0.14 0.004
 Diabetes (%) 11 (6.3) 17 (1.9) 7 (2.7) 6 (4.7) 0.007
 High HOMA (%) 35 (24.3) 117 (16.5) 37 (18.5) 15 (15.2) 0.133
 Metabolic syndrome (%) 39 (22.4) 113 (12.7) 37 (14.0) 21 (16.3) 0.009
  1. Results are expressed as number of people and (column percentage), as average ± standard deviation. Normal weight was defined as a body mass index <25 kg/m2; abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥88 cm for women and ≥102 cm in men. Between-group comparisons performed using Chi square for categorical variables and by ANOVA for continuous variables. For continuous variables, post hoc pairwise comparisons using the method of Scheffe were performed when the results of the ANOVA were statistically significant; results with a different subscript are significantly different at p < 0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons). For fasting insulin and HOMA, no pairwise difference at p < 0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) was found
  2. §Statistical analysis performed on log-transformed data