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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients

From: Cohort profile: the German Diabetes Study (GDS)

  Type 1 DM Type 2 DM
Age (%) (%)
 15–19 5.4 0.2
 20–24 15.0 1.1
 25–29 16.7 1.7
 30–34 18.0 3.1
 35–39 10.0 4.6
 40–44 9.6 8.5
 45–49 8.7 15.3
 50–54 10.4 16.2
 55–59 2.5 17.2
 60–64 3.0 18.8
 65–69 0.8 13.1
 70–74 0 0.2
Sex   
 Male 62.5 67.0
 Female 37.5 33.0
Marital status
 Single 55.0 21.8
 Co-habiting/married 40.8 61.6
 Separated/divorced 3.7 12.4
 Widowed 0.4 4.1
Higher education
 Up to class 8 9.6 27.1
 Junior high school 20.0 22.5
 Up to class 10 0.0 5.0
 Advanced technical college 13.3 12.2
 Secondary school examination 55.0 30.6
 No education 0.4 0.7
 Other types of education 1.2 1.7
 No response* 0.4 0.2
Employment
 Laborer 9.2 16.2
 Employee 54.6 61.3
 Official 5.4 5.0
 Business man 7.2 10.0
 Farmer 0 0.2
 Self-employed worker 2.1 3.5
 Non-employed 0.8 0
 Other professions 5.4 1.5
 No response/advanced educationa 1.2 0.2
Medical insurance
 Private 15.8 12.4
 Government/public 77.9 81.9
 Other insurance 5.8 4.6
 No insurance 0 0
 No response 0.5 1.1
Regular medical checks
 Yes 35.8 56.1
 No 63.7 42.8
 No responsea 0.4 0.9
Family history of diabetes
 Mother 16.1 32.7
 Father 17.3 26.3
 Children 0.8 1.7
 Brothers and sisters 7.6 18.4
 Grandparents 37.3 35.2
 Uncles and aunts 15.8 20.0
Other diseases/risk factors/comorbidities
 Hypertension 18.5 63.3
 History of myocardial infarction 0.4 2.8
 Retinopathy 0.8 1.3
 History of or current smoking 73.3 88.9
 Subclinical DSPN 9.8 6.9
 Confirmed asymptomatic DSPN 0.4 2.6
 Confirmed symptomatic DSPN 2.2 4.0
 Possible DSPN 7.2 23.2
 Probable DSPN 0.5 5.3
 Subclinical/borderline CAN 0.9 2.1
 Definite CAN 1.4 2.4
Medication
Glucose lowering therapy
 Insulin, short acting 87.9 5.9
 Insulin, long acting 54.2 4.8
 Metformin 14.6 56.1
 Sulfonylurea 1.3 3.5
 Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors 1.3 6.6
 GLP-1-Agonists 0.4 2.0
Other therapies
 Acetylsalicylic acid 1.7 11.1
 Statins 2.5 17.5
 Fibrates 0.0 0.7
Any antihypertensive therapy
 Blockers of the renin-angiotensin system 2.1 15.9
 Beta blockers 2.9 25.3
 Calcium channel blockers 0.8 13.8
 Diuretics 0.4 8.3
  1. Demographic characteristics of the type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients included until 01/2015 at baseline in  % of whole study group. DSPN: diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy, CAN: cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. DSPN and CAN were defined as previously reported (68, 98)
  2. aNo response refers to the number of participants, who prefer not to answer to a specific question during the interview