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Table 4 Subgroup analysis of hazard ratios of cardiovascular diseases and hypoglycemic events associated with various antidiabetic drugs, as compared to DPP4i as reference, in the patients with CVD history

From: Risks of cardiovascular diseases associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and other antidiabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nation-wide longitudinal study

  Time at risk (person-years) Incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) Unadjusted HR (95 % CI) Adjusted HR* (95 % CI)
MACEs
Antidiabetic drug (ref. = DPP4i) 11,532 71.79
No antidiabetic drug 43,967 109.05 1.47 (1.32, 1.62) 1.27 (1.14, 1.40)
Sulfonylureas 40,852 67.48 0.92 (0.82, 1.01) 0.97 (0.87, 1.08)
Acarbose 9972 80.52 1.10 (0.97, 1.24) 1.01 (0.89, 1.14)
Meglitinides 6346 160.39 2.16 (1.91, 2.44) 1.54 (1.36, 1.73)
Insulin 3919 362.57 4.90 (0.68, 0.84) 3.30 (2.90, 3.75)
Metformin 67,237 56.33 0.76 (0.51, 0.83) 0.88 (0.78, 0.97)
Pioglitazone 1683 48.72 0.65 (0.51, 0.83) 0.74 (0.57, 0.95)
Rosiglitazone 186 75.00 0.91 (0.53, 1.54) 0.96 (0.56, 1.64)
Ischemic stroke
Antidiabetic drug (ref. = DPP4i) 11,532 37.02
No antidiabetic drug 43,967 61.47 1.61 (1.39, 1.85) 1.38 (1.19, 1.59)
Sulfonylureas 40,852 40.19 1.06 (0.91, 1.22) 1.07 (0.92, 1.23)
Acarbose 9972 41.51 1.10 (0.92, 1.29) 1.01 (0.85,1.18)
Meglitinides 6346 79.40 2.08 (1.75, 2.45) 1.48 (1.24, 1.74)
Insulin 3919 183.96 4.82 (4.10, 5.65) 3.37 (2.86, 3.96)
Metformin 67,237 36.78 0.97 (0.84, 1.10) 1.05 (0.91, 1.20)
Pioglitazone 1683 23.17 0.60 (0.43, 0.84) 0.67 (0.47, 0.94)
Rosiglitazone 186 42.85 1.01 (0.50, 2.02) 0.99 (0.49, 2.00)
Myocardial infarction
Antidiabetic drug (ref. = DPP4i) 11,532 8.67
No antidiabetic drug 43,967 11.05 1.38 (1.08, 1.76) 1.34 (1.04, 1.71)
Sulfonylureas 40,852 7.31 0.87 (0.68, 1.10) 0.99 (0.72, 1.26)
Acarbose 9972 7.82 0.92 (0.67, 1.26) 0.91 (0.66, 1.25)
Meglitinides 6346 13.86 1.65 (1.23, 2.20) 1.32 (0.98, 1.77)
Insulin 3919 27.81 3.25 (2.45, 4.30) 2.41 (1.80, 3.21)
Metformin 67,237 5.35 0.64 (0.50, 0.80) 0.78 (0.61, 0.98)
Pioglitazone 1683 7.12 0.83 (0.45, 1.52) 0.93 (0.50, 1.71)
Rosiglitazone 186 10.71 1.32 (0.33, 5.32) 1.46 (0.36, 5.81)
Heart failure
Antidiabetic drug (ref. = DPP4i) 11,532 30.26
No antidiabetic drug 43,967 48.71 1.52 (1.29, 1.78) 1.28 (1.08, 1.49)
Sulfonylureas 40,852 24.03 0.77 (0.65, 0.90) 0.86 (0.72, 1.02)
Acarbose 9972 36.19 1.17 (0.97, 1.39) 1.07 (0.89, 1.28)
Meglitinides 6346 77.36 2.45 (2.03, 2.95) 1.66 (1.38, 1.98)
Insulin 3919 178.60 5.72 (4.78, 6.83) 3.52 (2.88, 4.28)
Metformin 67,237 17.20 0.55 (0.46, 0.64) 0.68 (0.57, 0.80)
Pioglitazone 1683 23.17 0.73 (0.50, 1.07) 0.89 (0.59, 1.31)
Rosiglitazone 186 21.42 0.61 (0.22, 1.63) 0.72 (0.26, 1.97)
Hypoglycemia
Antidiabetic drug (ref. = DPP4i) 11,532 7.37
No antidiabetic drug 43,967 7.32 0.92 (0.70, 1.20) 0.83 (0.63, 1.07)
Sulfonylureas 40,852 10.13 1.31 (1.02, 1.67) 1.44 (1.12, 1.82)
Acarbose 9972 7.52 0.98 (0.72, 1.32) 0.92 (0.68, 1.24)
Meglitinides 6346 24.10 3.09 (2.35, 4.03) 2.20 (1.68, 2.88)
Insulin 3919 45.67 5.91 (4.50, 7.74) 3.73 (2.77, 5.01)
Metformin 67,237 3.56 0.46 (0.35, 0.59) 0.54 (0.42, 0.70)
Pioglitazone 1683 8.31 1.08 (0.61, 1.90) 1.25 (0.70, 2.20)
Rosiglitazone 186 21.42 2.31 (0.84, 6.32) 2.42 (0.88, 6.65)
  1. CVD cardiovascular disease, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, MACEs major adverse cardiovascular events, DPP-4 inhibitors dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors
  2. * Adjusted hazard ratios were estimated from the Cox models adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, comorbidity history (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery diseases, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, Charlson comorbidity index), diabetic complications (via adapted diabetic complication severity index), co-medications (α-blockers, β-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-II-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, lipid-lowering agents, anti-platelet agents/anticoagulants, nitroglycerin, digoxin)