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Table 2 Hazard ratios of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) associated with exposure to various antidiabetic drugs

From: Risks of cardiovascular diseases associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and other antidiabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nation-wide longitudinal study

MACEs

Time at risk (person-years)

Incidence rate (per 1000 person-years)

Unadjusted HR (95 % CI)

Adjusted HR* (95 % CI)

p value

DPP4i

28,508

39.56

0.82

0.83 (0.76, 0.91)

<0.0001

(ref.=non-DPP4i users)

334,148

41.53

Sulfonylureas

110,618

35.99

0.67

0.80 (0.77, 0.84)

<0.0001

(ref. = non-sulfonylureas users)

252,038

43.74

Acarbose

22,800

48.37

1.01

0.92 (0.85, 0.99)

0.0463

(ref. = non-acarbose users)

339,856

26.10

Meglitinides

13,103

102.49

2.23

1.46 (1.35, 1.58)

<0.0001

(ref. = non-meglitinide users)

349,553

39.08

Insulin

9632

206.06

4.75

3.53 (3.23, 3.87)

<0.0001

(ref. = non-insulin users)

353,024

36.88

Metformin

172,813

30.87

0.48

0.66 (0.63, 0.69)

<0.0001

(ref. = non-metformin users)

189,843

45.00

Pioglitazone

4678

24.15

0.49

0.61 (0.50, 0.75)

<0.0001

(ref. = non-pioglitazone users)

357,978

41.60

Rosiglitazone

504

35.64

0.69

0.78 (0.49, 1.26)

0.3187

(ref. = non-rosiglitazone users)

362,152

41.38

  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, DPP4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors
  2. * Adjusted hazard ratios were estimated from the Cox models adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, comorbidity history (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery diseases, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, Charlson comorbidity index), diabetic complications (via adapted diabetic complication severity index), co-medications (α-blockers, β-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-II-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, lipid-lowering agents, anti-platelet agents/anticoagulants, nitroglycerin, digoxin)