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Table 2 Hazard ratios of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) associated with exposure to various antidiabetic drugs

From: Risks of cardiovascular diseases associated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and other antidiabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nation-wide longitudinal study

MACEs Time at risk (person-years) Incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) Unadjusted HR (95 % CI) Adjusted HR* (95 % CI) p value
DPP4i 28,508 39.56 0.82 0.83 (0.76, 0.91) <0.0001
(ref.=non-DPP4i users) 334,148 41.53
Sulfonylureas 110,618 35.99 0.67 0.80 (0.77, 0.84) <0.0001
(ref. = non-sulfonylureas users) 252,038 43.74
Acarbose 22,800 48.37 1.01 0.92 (0.85, 0.99) 0.0463
(ref. = non-acarbose users) 339,856 26.10
Meglitinides 13,103 102.49 2.23 1.46 (1.35, 1.58) <0.0001
(ref. = non-meglitinide users) 349,553 39.08
Insulin 9632 206.06 4.75 3.53 (3.23, 3.87) <0.0001
(ref. = non-insulin users) 353,024 36.88
Metformin 172,813 30.87 0.48 0.66 (0.63, 0.69) <0.0001
(ref. = non-metformin users) 189,843 45.00
Pioglitazone 4678 24.15 0.49 0.61 (0.50, 0.75) <0.0001
(ref. = non-pioglitazone users) 357,978 41.60
Rosiglitazone 504 35.64 0.69 0.78 (0.49, 1.26) 0.3187
(ref. = non-rosiglitazone users) 362,152 41.38
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, DPP4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors
  2. * Adjusted hazard ratios were estimated from the Cox models adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, comorbidity history (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery diseases, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, Charlson comorbidity index), diabetic complications (via adapted diabetic complication severity index), co-medications (α-blockers, β-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-II-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, lipid-lowering agents, anti-platelet agents/anticoagulants, nitroglycerin, digoxin)