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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by the history of lower extremity amputation at baseline

From: Lower-extremity amputation as a marker for renal and cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with long standing type 1 diabetes

  History of LEA at baseline p
No Yes
N (%) 968 (90.7) 99 (9.3)  
Male sex (%) 51.9 70.7 0.0003
Age (years) 42.6 ± 11.6 51.6 ± 11.2 <0.0001
Age at diabetes onset (years) 15.5 ± 9.1 18.3 ± 9.0 0.007
Duration of diabetes (years) 27.0 ± 9.3 33.3 ± 9.0 <0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 3.5 23.9 ± 3.8 0.40
Systolic BP (mmHg) 134 ± 19 143 ± 20 <0.0001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 77 ± 11 80 ± 11 0.003
HbA1c (%) and (mmol/mol) 8.5 ± 1.5 (70 ± 16) 8.8 ± 2.1 (72 ± 23) 0.31
Plasma creatinine (µmol/l) 113 ± 112 166 ± 163 <0.0001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 81 ± 44 60 ± 37 <0.0001
UAC (mg/l) 22 (238) 95 (499) 0.01
Total cholesterola (mmol/l) 5.70 ± 1.45 5.67 ± 1.45 0.68
Triglyceridesa (mmol/l) 1.13 (0.91) 1.29 (0.5) 0.31
Tobacco smokingb (%) 42.3 55.1 0.01
Antihypertensive drugs (%) 51.1 73.7 <0.0001
ACE-I or ARB drugs (%) 41.3 55.6 0.006
Lipid lowering drugs (%) 8.4 11.1 0.35
Diabetic nephropathy stages (%) 46/21/18/15 18/17/30/35 <0.0001
Diabetic retinopathy stages (%) 0/27/18/55 0/4/15/81 <0.0001
Peripheral sensory neuropathy (%) 46.4 89.7 <0.0001
Peripheral artery disease (%) 5.8 93.8 <0.0001
  1. Results expressed as mean ± SD, except urinary albumin concentration (UAC) and triglycerides expressed as mean (interquartile range). Statistics of quantitative parameters are ANOVA performed with log-transformed data or Wilcoxon test (UAC and triglycerides). Antihypertensive drugs: all antihypertensive medication classes included. ACE-I angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker. Diabetic nephropathy stages: absence, incipient, established, and advanced nephropathy. Diabetic retinopathy stages: absent, non-proliferative, pre-proliferative, proliferative
  2. aData available only in the GENEDIAB cohort: n = 438 for total cholesterol and n = 129 for triglycerides
  3. bCurrent or past history of tobacco smoking
  4. p < 0.05 was significant