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Table 1 Demographics and baseline data of patients

From: Effects of analogue insulin in multiple daily injection therapy of type 2 diabetes on postprandial glucose control and cardiac function compared to human insulin: a randomized controlled long-term study

   Analogue insulin group AI (n = 61) Human insulin group HI (n = 48) p
Age Years 60.4 ± 9.5 63.1 ± 10.6 0.159
Sex male n (%) 46 (75) 31 (65) 0.218
BMI kg/m2 32 ± 5 32 ± 6 0.709
Duration of diabetes Years 10 {5–15} 9.5 {5–14} 0.580
Insulin dose MDI IE/d 56 {37–83} 50 {36–70} 0.485
Metformin n (%) 13 (21) 16 (33) 0.159
Hypertension n (%) 58 (95) 42 (88) 0.153
Smoking n (%) 17 (28) 15 (31) 0.700
Myocardial infarction n (%) 14 (23) 8 (17) 0.417
Betablocker n (%) 23 (38) 18 (38) 0.983
ACE-inhibitor n (%) 37 (60) 33 (69) 0.224
Calcium channel blocker n (%) 9 (15) 10 (21) 0.406
AT1 blocker n (%) 15 (25) 8 (17) 0.314
Diuretics n (%) 23 (38) 20 (42) 0.674
Statins n (%) 28 (46) 25 (52) 0.522
Aspirin n (%) 30 (49) 23 (48) 0.896
Glucose fasting mg/dl 163 ± 54 163 ± 45 0.962
Glucose pp mg/dl 183 ± 69 185 ± 50 0.870
HbA1c % 7.3 ± 1.7 7.7 ± 1.8 0.237
Intact proinsulina pmol/l 5 {2.7–7.6} 4.8 {3.2–8.2} 0.515
Triglycerides mg/dl 137{102–177} 117 {94–184} 0.463
Cholesterol mg/dl 187 ± 36 188 ± 42 0.890
LDL mg/dl 114 ± 34 113 ± 37 0.941
HDL mg/dl 46 {38–53} 48 {39–54} 0.543
Creatinine mg/dl 0.9 {0.8–1.08} 0.9 {0.7–1.1} 0.493
ASAT U/l 29 {24–40} 27 {23–39} 0.862
CRP mg/dl 0.28 {0.13–0.5} 0.3 {0.15–0.58} 0.552
S’ cm/s 7.6 ± 1.1 7.6 ± 1 0.984
E’ cm/s 7.8 ± 1.4 8.2 ± 1.7 0.168
LV end-diastolic diameter mm 44 {42–48} 44 {41–48} 0.776
Septal thickness mm 12 {11–14} 12 {11–13} 0.449
Mitral E/A   0.9 {0.7–1.1} 0.9 {0.8–1.1} 0.651
E/E’ mmHg 8.9 {7.5–10.9} 8.1 {7.0–9.6} 0.174
Intima media thickness mm 0.7 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.2 0.714
Εlasticity modulus Ɛ kPa 140 {113–228} 165{136–259} 0.087
Pulse wave velocity m/s 7.3 {6.6–9.2} 8.3 {7.0–9.9} 0.151
Heart rate bpm 71 {63–78} 69 {64–80} 0.509
Systolic blood pressure mmHg 140 {129–152} 140{123–150} 0.712
Diastolic blood pressure mmHg 83 ± 12 81 ± 9 0.321
  1. Mean ± SD or median {interquartile range} respectively
  2. pp postmeal, S’ systolic myocardial velocity, E’ early diastolic myocardial velocity, LV left ventricular, E/E' estimated LV filling pressure
  3. aData from representative subgroups (AI = 36 and HI = 31)