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Table 5 Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression all-cause mortality, CVD event and severe chronic kidney disease

From: Effect of metformin monotherapy on cardiovascular diseases and mortality: a retrospective cohort study on Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

  MM group comparing with control group Harrell’s C-statistic
HRa 95 % CI P value
Full cohort (N = 11,293)
 All-cause mortality 0.725 (0.584–0.901) 0.004* 0.806 (0.783–0.828)
 CVD 0.726 (0.609–0.866) <0.001* 0.731 (0.711–0.752)
  CHD 0.670 (0.521–0.862) 0.002* 0.727 (0.698–0.756)
  Stroke 0.750 (0.573–0.982) 0.036* 0.734 (0.704–0.765)
  Heart failure 0.795 (0.551–1.147) 0.221 0.872 (0.844–0.899)
 Chronic kidney disease (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) 1.076 (0.838–1.381) 0.565 0.848 (0.827–0.870)
Propensity score-matched cohort (N = 6800)
 All-cause mortality 0.705 (0.547–0.908) 0.007* 0.809 (0.783–0.836)
 CVD 0.684 (0.556–0.842) <0.001* 0.731 (0.705–0.756)
  CHD 0.645 (0.480–0.866) 0.004* 0.720 (0.683–0.758)
  Stroke 0.698 (0.511–0.954) 0.024* 0.754 (0.719–0.790)
  Heart failure 0.688 (0.435–1.086) 0.109 0.865 (0.825–0.906)
 Chronic kidney disease (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2) 1.163 (0.874–1.549) 0.300 0.854 (0.826–0.881)
  1. MM metformin monotherapy, CVD cardiovascular disease, CHD coronary heart disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, DM diabetes mellitus, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. * p value <0.05
  3. aHR >1 indicates greater risk for death