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Table 4 Number and incidence rates of all-cause mortality, CVD event and severe chronic kidney disease

From: Effect of metformin monotherapy on cardiovascular diseases and mortality: a retrospective cohort study on Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

Event Cumulative incidence Incidence rate (cases/1000 person-years) Person-years Median follow-up periods (months)
No. of event Rate (%) Estimate 95 % CIa
Full cohort (N = 11,293)
 All-cause mortality 397 3.52 8.713 (7.877–9.614) 45,561.5 60.5
 CVD 610 5.40 13.527 (12.474–14.644) 45,095.8 58.5
  CHD 294 2.60 6.482 (5.763–7.267) 45,353.5 59.5
  Stroke 266 2.36 5.865 (5.182–6.614) 45,351.9 59.5
  Heart failure 139 1.23 3.055 (2.569–3.608) 45,493.0 60.5
 Severe CKD 333 2.95 5.266 (4.716–5.864) 63,230.1 60.5
MM group (N = 7493)
 All-cause Mortality 240 3.20 7.591 (6.661–8.615) 31,615.0 62.5
 CVD 382 5.10 12.204 (11.011–13.492) 31,300.8 61.5
  CHD 176 2.35 5.591 (4.796–6.481) 31,477.2 61.5
  Stroke 170 2.27 5.403 (4.621–6.279) 31,466.3 61.5
  Heart failure 85 1.13 2.692 (2.150–3.328) 31,580.7 62.5
 Severe CKD 230 3.07 7.275 (6.365–8.278) 31,615.0 62.5
Control group (N = 3800)
 All-cause Mortality 157 4.13 11.257 (9.565–13.162) 13,946.5 45.5
 CVD 228 6.00 16.528 (14.452–18.818) 13,795.0 44.5
  CHD 118 3.11 8.504 (7.039–10.184) 13,876.3 45
  Stroke 96 2.53 6.914 (5.600–8.443) 13,885.6 44.5
  Heart failure 54 1.42 3.881 (2.916–5.064) 13,912.3 45.5
 Severe CKD 103 2.71 7.385 (6.028–8.957) 13,946.5 45.5
Propensity score-matched cohort (N = 6800)
 All-cause mortality 249 3.66 9.104 (8.009–10.308) 27,349.6 60.5
 CVD 366 5.38 13.527 (12.177–14.987) 27,056.3 58.5
  CHD 183 2.69 6.724 (5.785–7.772) 27,217.4 59.5
  Stroke 162 2.38 5.951 (5.070–6.942) 27,221.0 59.5
  Heart failure 77 1.13 2.821 (2.226–3.525) 27,298.1 60.5
 Severe CKD 197 2.90 7.203 (6.232–8.282) 27,349.6 60.5
MM group (N = 3400)
 All-cause mortality 113 3.32 7.493 (6.175–9.008) 15,081.4 62.5
 CVD 169 4.97 11.330 (9.686–13.173) 14,915.8 62.5
  CHD 81 2.38 5.398 (4.287–6.710) 15,004.7 62.5
  Stroke 76 2.24 5.065 (3.990–6.339) 15,006.4 62.5
  Heart failure 34 1.00 2.257 (1.563–3.154) 15,062.0 62.5
 Severe CKD 112 3.29 7.426 (6.115–8.936) 15,081.4 62.5
Control group (N = 3400)
 All-cause mortality 136 4.00 11.086 (9.301–13.113) 12,268.2 44.5
 CVD 197 5.79 16.227 (14.040–18.658) 12,140.6 43.5
  CHD 102 3.00 8.352 (6.810–10.139) 12,212.8 43.5
  Stroke 86 2.53 7.041 (5.632–8.695) 12,214.6 43.5
  Heart failure 43 1.26 3.514 (2.543–4.734) 12,236.1 43.5
 Severe CKD 85 2.50 6.929 (5.534–8.567) 12,268.2 44.5
  1. MM metformin monotherapy, CVD cardiovascular disease, CHD coronary heart disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, DM diabetes mellitus, CI confidence interval, CKD chronic kidney disease
  2. aThe 95 % CI was constructed based on Poisson distribution