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Table 1 Clinical data of patients with type 2 diabetes

From: High visceral fat with low subcutaneous fat accumulation as a determinant of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes

VFA (cm2) <100 ≥100 p value*
SFA (cm2) <100 (N = 34) ≥100 (N = 39) <100 (N = 11) ≥100 (N = 64)
VFA (cm2) 56 ± 26 74 ± 21 149 ± 34 175 ± 52 <0.001
SFA (cm2) 61 ± 23 157 ± 41 78 ± 16 149 ± 34 <0.001
VFA-to-SFA ratio 1.00 ± 0.43 0.50 ± 0.20 1.98 ± 0.62 0.92 ± 0.33 <0.001
Age (years) 70 ± 10 64 ± 11 72 ± 6 62 ± 12 0.001
Gender (% male) 77 18 100 59 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 19.4 ± 2.1 23.2 ± 2.4 22.5 ± 1.8 27.0 ± 3.8 <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 118 ± 15 115 ± 9 136 ± 13 129 ± 11 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 68 ± 11 66 ± 9 78 ± 15 75 ± 12 <0.001
Current smoker (%) 0 5 18 11 0.111
Duration of diabetes (years) 4.9 (4.2–5.7) 2.6 (2.2–3.2) 3.8 (3.0–4.8) 3.2 (3.1–3.3) 0.120
HbA1c (%) 6.9 ± 1.0 6.7 ± 0.4 6.7 ± 0.4 7.4 ± 1.7 0.024
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.36 (1.15–1.61) 1.01 (0.88–1.16) 1.16 (0.79–1.69) 1.67 (1.43–1.96) 0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.48 ± 0.52 1.50 ± 0.58 1.61 ± 0.42 1.52 ± 0.44 0.900
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.42 ± 0.72 2.80 ± 1.05 2.80 ± 0.75 2.95 ± 0.82 0.052
Uric acid (μmol/l) 282 ± 85 265 ± 82 395 ± 91 335 ± 58 <0.001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 76.8 ± 18.1 73.0 ± 21.5 62.3 ± 22.6 70.6 ± 23.4 0.250
Log ACR (mg/g) 24 (18–31) 23 (15–35) 25 (11–55) 45 (31–68) <0.001
PDR (%) 6 0 0 11 0.128
AST (U/l) 25 (23–27) 21 (19–24) 27 (22–34) 25 (23–28) 0.060
ALT (U/l) 21 (17–25) 16 (14–17) 21 (14–31) 27 (23–31) <0.001
γ-GTP (U/l) 26 (23–31) 23 (21–25) 64 (37–112) 41 (29–59) <0.001
CIMT (mm) 0.86 ± 0.17 0.88 ± 0.07 1.30 0.41 0.81 ± 0.17 <0.001
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, geometric mean (95 % CI) or percentage
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST asparatate aminotransferase, CIMT carotid intima media thickness, DBP diastolic blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, γ-GTP glutamyl transpeptidase, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, PDR proliferative diabetic retinopathy, SBP systolic blood pressure
  3. * One-way ANOVA or Chi square test