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Table 2 Echocardiographic data at baseline

From: Inhibition of DPP-4 reduces acute mortality after myocardial infarction with restoration of autophagic response in type 2 diabetic rats

  LETO OLETF
Vehicle Vildagliptin Exenatide Chloroquine Vehicle Vildagliptin Exenatide Vildagliptin + Chloroquine
HR (bpm) 384 ± 6 386 ± 7 385 ± 4 375 ± 6 312 ± 7* 316 ± 4* 315 ± 6* 324 ± 9*
LVEF (%) 69.4 ± 1.5 70.8 ± 1.3 68.4 ± 1.2 73.0 ± 1.3 65.4 ± 1.5 67.7 ± 0.7 68.5 ± 1.3 69.9 ± 1.3
FS (%) 35.0 ± 1.3 35.9 ± 1.0 34.0 ± 0.8 37.6 ± 1.5 32.1 ± 1.1 33.4 ± 0.5 34.4 ± 1.0 35.2 ± 1.1
IVST (mm) 1.72 ± 0.04 1.69 ± 0.02 1.76 ± 0.03 1.75 ± 0.04 1.81 ± 0.04 1.74 ± 0.03 1.73 ± 0.03 1.85 ± 0.02
PWT (mm) 1.66 ± 0.06 1.73 ± 0.05 1.64 ± 0.02 1.76 ± 0.06 1.85 ± 0.05 1.79 ± 0.04 1.83 ± 0.06 1.84 ± 0.03
LVEDD (mm) 7.04 ± 0.12 6.71 ± 0.19 7.11 ± 0.12 6.68 ± 0.12 8.05 ± 0.18* 7.69 ± 0.10* 7.88 ± 0.12* 7.65 ± 0.15*
LVESD (mm) 4.60 ± 0.15 4.34 ± 0.13 4.69 ± 0.09 4.16 ± 0.14 5.49 ± 0.17* 5.08 ± 0.10* 5.17 ± 0.12* 4.94 ± 0.07*
LVEDV (ml) 0.80 ± 0.04 0.75 ± 0.04 0.83 ± 0.04 0.69 ± 0.03 1.17 ± 0.07* 1.02 ± 0.04* 1.10 ± 0.04* 1.00 ± 0.06*
LVESV (ml) 0.26 ± 0.02 0.22 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.02 0.19 ± 0.02 0.41 ± 0.03* 0.37 ± 0.04* 0.35 ± 0.02* 0.30 ± 0.01*
  1. Values are mean ± SEM. N = 12–33.
  2. HR heart rate, bpm beats per minute, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, FS fractional shortening, IVST interventricular septal thickness, PWT posterior wall thickness, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, LVESD left ventricular end-systolic dimension, LVEDV left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVESV left ventricular end-systolic volume.
  3. * P < 0.05 vs. LETO Vehicle.